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NUMENIUS

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Originally appearing in Volume V19, Page 866 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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NUMENIUS  , a

Greek philosopher, of
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Apamea in
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Syria, Neo-
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Pythagorean and forerunner of the Neo-Platonists, flourished during the latter
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half of the end century A.D . He seems to have taken Pythagoras as his highest authority, while at the same time he chiefly follows
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Plato . He calls the latter an "Atticizing Moses." His chief divergence from Plato is the distinction between the " first
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god " and the " demiurge." This is probably due to the influence of the Valentinian Gnostics and the Jewish-Alexandrian philosophers (especially Philo and his theory of the
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Logos) . According to Proclus (Comment. in Timaeum, 93) Numenius held that there was a kind of trinity of gods, the members of which he designated as 1rarilp, 7roorris, aolruia ("
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father," " maker," " that which is made," i.e. the
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world), or 7razraos, EKyovos, 67r6yovos (which Proclus calls " exaggerated language ") . The first is the supreme deity or pure intelligence (vows), the second the creator of the world (677µtovpy6s), the third the world (KO(1µos) . His
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works were highly esteemed by the Neoplatonists, and Amelius is said to have composed nearly too books of commentaries upon them . Fragments of his
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treatises on the points of divergence between the Academicians and Plato, on the Good (in which according to Origen, Contra Celsum, iv . 51, he makes allusion to Jesus Christ), and on the mystical sayings in Plato, are preserved in the Praeparatio Evangelica of Eusebius . The fragments are collected in F . G . Mullach, Frag . Phil .

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Gram iii.; see also F . Thedinga, De Numenio philosopho Platonico (
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Bonn, 1875); Ritter and Preller, Hist . Phil . Graecae (ed . E . Wellmann, 1898), § 624-7; T . Whittaker, The Neo-Platonists (1901) .

End of Article: NUMENIUS
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PARTITION OF NUMBERS
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NUMERAL (from Lat. numerus, a number)

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