See also:term applied to that class of fruit which consists generally of a single kernel enclosed in a hard
See also:shell . Botanically speaking, nuts are one-celled fruits with hardened pericarps, sometimes more or less enveloped in a cupule or
See also:cup, formed by the aggregation of the bracts as in the
See also:hazel and the
See also:acorn . In commerce, however,
See also:tale term has a wider application and embraces many fruits having hard woody indehiscent shells or coverings without reference to their enclosed seeds or kernels, besides leguminous pods, and even tuberous roots . A
See also:great number of nuts enter into commerce for various purposes, principally as articles of
See also:food or
See also:sources of oil, and for several ornamental and useful purposes . For the most
See also:part the edible nuts are very
See also:rich in oil, with only a small percentage of the other carbohydrates,
See also:sugar, &c., and they also contain a large proportion of nitrogenous constituents . Thus possessing rich nutrient principles in a highly concentrated
See also:form, nuts are by themselves rather difficult of digestion, and the liability of many of them to become rancid is also a source of danger and a hindrance to their
See also:free use . Oleaginous nuts used for food are likewise employed more or less as sources of oil, but on the other
See also:hand there are many oil-nuts of commercial importance not embraced in the
See also:list of edible nuts . On the following page is set out an alphabetical enumeration of the more important nuts, and of products passing under that name, used either as articles of food or as sources of oil . Name . Source . Locality . Remarks .
See also:Almond Amygdalus communis, S .
See also:Europe . . . Food, oil . Almond (bitter) .
See also:var. dulcis W . Europe (Britain) Oil . Ar
See also:nut or
See also:earth nut Amygdalus communis, Tropics, especially Food . Bambarra ground nut var. amara Africa Food .
See also:Ben nut Tubers of Bunium flexuo- India Oil . Bitter nut . . . . sum and other
See also:species N .
See also:America . . . See
See also:HICKORY . Brazil nut . . . . Voandzeia subterranea S . America Food, oil .
See also:Bread nut . . . Moringa pterygosperma W . Indies Food .
See also:Butter or Souari nut (a winged seed)
See also:Guiana Food .
Cahoun nut . . . Carya amara (swamp
See also:Honduras Oil . Candle nut . . . hickory) S .
See also:Sea Islands . Oil . Cashew nut . . Bertholletia excelsa . . W . Indies and Tropical Food, oil .
See also:Chestnut .
Brosimum Alicastrum . America Food .
See also:Cob, filbert, or hazel Caryocar nuciferum . . S . Europe . See HAZEL . Cob nut of
See also:Jamaica . Attalea Cohune . . . Europe (Britain), &c . Food . Coco-nut .
. . .Aleurites triloba . W . Indies and Tropical Food, oil . Cola nut . . . . Anacardium occidentale . America Food . Dika nut . . . Castanea vesca . . .
Tropics Food, oil . Ginkgo nut Corylus Avellana . . . W . Africa Food, oil . Ground nut or
See also:pea nut Omphalea diandra . . W . Africa See GROUND NUT . Hickory nut . . . Cocos nucifera . . .
See also:China . . . See HIcxoRY . Hog nut . . . . Cola acuminata . . . Tropics Eaten by animals . Jesuit's nut . . . Irvingia Barteri . . .
N . America . . . Food . Mocker nut . . Ginkgo biloba (seed) . . N . America . . . See HICKORY . Moreton
See also:Bay chestnut Arachis hypogaea . . S .
Europe Food .Nutmeg . . Carya
See also:alba . . . . N . America . . . Spice . See NUTMEG . Nutmeg (
See also:wild) . . . Carya porcina .
. . .
See also:Australia Spice . See NUTMEG .
See also:Olive nut . . . . Trapa natano . . . . E . Indies Food . Palm nut . . . . Carya tomentosa .
Tropics Oil . See PALM . Pecan nut . . . . Castanospermum australe E . Indies . . . . Food, oil . See HICKORY . Pekea nut . . . . Myristica moschata .
. W . Africa . . . . Food . Physic nut . . . . Myristica fatua, Me tom- N . America . . . Oil .
See also:Pine nut . . .
. entosa, &c . Guiana . . . Food . Pistachio nut . . . Eleocar pus Ganitrus, &c . Tropical America . . Food . Quandang nut . . . Elaeis guineensis .
.Italy . . . Food . Ravensara nut . . . Carya olivaeformis . . S . Europe, &c .. . . Spice . Rush nut . . .
. Caryocar butyrosum . . Australia . . . . Food . Sapucaya nut . . . Curcas purgans . . . Food .
See also:Tahiti chestnut . . Finns Pinea, &c . . .
See also:Walnut Pistachia very . . Food, oil .
See also:Water chestnut . . Fusanus acurninatus . . Food . Agathophyllumarornaticum
See also:Madagascar . . . Cyperus esculentus (tubers) S . Europe, &c .. . . Lecythis 011aria .
. . Brazil . . . Inocar pus edulis . . . S . Sea Islands . . . Juglans regia .
See also:Asia, Europe . Various species of Trapa S . Europe, India, &c .
. The application of the term nut to many of these products is purely arbitrary, and it is obvious that numerous other bodies not known commercially as nuts might with equal propriety be included in the list . Most of the nuts of real commercial There remain'to be enumerated a number of nuts of commercial value for turnery and ornamental purposes, for medicinal use, and for several
See also:miscellaneous applications in the arts . These include: Name . Source . Locality . Remarks . Betel nut . . . . Areca
See also:Catechu E . Indies ... . Bladder nut . . .
Staphylea pinnata S . Europe Necklaces . Boomah nut . . . Pycnocoma macrophylle . Africa Tanning . Bonduc nut . . . Guilandina Bonduc . . India
See also:Medicine, beads . Clearing nut . . .
Strychnos potatorum . India Clearing water . Coquilla nut . Attalea funifera . . Brazil . . . . Turnery . Corozo nut or
See also:vegetable Phytelephas macrocarpa . Tropical S . America See PALM . ivory Dipterix odorata . . .
Tropical S . America Perfume . Cumara nut (Tonka Acrocomia selerocarpa . S . America . Beads .bean) Aesculus Hippocastanum S . Europe . . . . Starch . Grugru nut . . .
. Semecarpus Anacardium E . Indies . . . . Marking
See also:ink and
See also:varnish .
See also:Horse chestnut . . Quercus infectoria . .
See also:Levant Dyeing and ink making, Marking nut . . . Strychnos Nux-Vomica . E . Indies . . .
See also:GALLS . Nut galls . . . Nectandra Puchury . . S . America . . . . Medicine . See Nux
See also:Poison nut . . . . Ophiocaryou paradoxum . S .
America . . . . VOMICA . Sassafras nut . . . Sapindus Saponaria . . W . Indies . . . Aromatic . Snake nut . . .
. Curiosity .
See also:Soap nut . . . . Washing; ornamental importance are or will be separately noticed, and here further allusion is only made to a few which form current articles of commerce, not otherwise treated of . The bread nut of Jamaica is the fruit of a lofty
See also:tree, Brosimum Alicastrum . It is about an inch in diameter, and encloses a single seed, which, roasted or boiled, is a pleasant and nutritious article of food . The souari or surahwa nut, called also the " Butter nut of
See also:Demerara," and by fruiterers the " Suwarrow nut," is the fruit of Caryocar nuciferum, a native of the forests of Guiana, growing 8o ft. in height . This is perhaps the finest of all the fruits called nuts . The kernel is large, soft, and even sweeter than the almond, which it somewhat resembles in taste . The few that are imported come from Demerara, and are about the
See also:size of an
See also:egg, somewhat
See also:kidney-shaped, of a rich reddish-
See also:colour, and covered with large rounded tubercles . The pekea nut, similar in appearance and properties, ,is the produce of Caryocar butyrosum, growing in the same regions of tropical America . The Jamaica cob nut is the produce of a euphorbiaceous tree, Omphalea diandra, the seeds of which resemble in taste the ordinary cob or hazel nut .
The seed, however, contains a deleterious embryo, which must not be eaten . Cola,
See also:kola or goora nuts are the seeds of Cola acuminata (Sterculiaceae), a tree, native of tropical Africa, now introduced into the West Indies and South America . The nuts form an important article of commerce through-out Central Africa, being used over a wide
See also:area as a kind of stimulant condiment . The nuts, of which there are numerous varieties, are found to contain a notable proportion of theine, as much as 2.13 %, besides theobromine and other important food-constituents, to which circumstances, doubtless, their valuable properties are due . Coquilla nuts, the hard inner portion ("
See also:stone ") of the palm, Attalea funifera, the piassaba of Brazil, are highly valued for turnery purposes . They have an elongated
See also:oval form, 3 to 4 in. in length, and being intensely hard they take a
See also:polish, displaying a richly streaked brown colour . The marking nut, Semecarpus Anacardium, is a fruit closely allied in its source and properties to the cashew nut (q.v.) . The marking nut is a native of the East Indies, where the extremely acrid juice of the shell of the fruit in its unripe state is mixed with quicklime and used as a marking-ink . The juice also possesses medicinal virtues as an
See also:external application, and when dry it is the basis of a valuable caulking material and black varnish . The seeds are edible, and the source of a useful oil . Physic nuts are the produce of the euphorbiaceous tree, Curcas purgans, whence a valuable oil, having similar purgative properties to
See also:castor oil, is obtained . The plant is a native of South America, but is now found throughout all tropical countries .
Pine nuts are the seeds of several species of Pinus, eaten in the countries of their growth, and also serving to some extent as sources of oil . Of these the most important are the stone pine, Pinus Pinea, of Italy and the Mediterranean coasts, and the
See also:Russian stone pine, Pinus Cembra . The Pinus Sabiniana of California and P . Gerardiana of the Himalayas similarly yield edible seeds . These seeds possess a pleasant, slightly resinous flavour . Ravensara nuts, the fruit of Agathophyllum aromaticum (Lauraceae), a native of Madagascar, is used as a spice under the name of the Madagascar clove nutmeg . The Sapucaya nut, a native of Brazil, is seen occasionally in fruit-shops . It is produced by a large tree, Lecythis 011aria, or "
See also:ball tree." Its specific name is taken from the large
See also:urn-shaped capsules, called "
See also:monkey-pots " by the inhabitants, which contain the nuts . The sapucaya nut has a sweet flavour, resembling the almond, and if better known would be highly appreciated . It is, however, scarce, as the monkeys and other wild animals are said to be particularly fond of it . This nut, which is of a rich
See also:amber-brown, is not unlike the Brazil nut, but it has a smooth shell furrowed with deep
See also:longitudinal wrinkles . Soap nuts are the fruits of various species of Sapindus, especially S .
Saponaria, natives of tropical regions . They are so called because their rind or
See also:outer covering contains a principle, saponine, which lathers in water, and so is useful in washing . The pods of
See also:Acacia concinna, a native of India, possess the same properties, and are also known as soap nuts .
NUTATION (from Lat. nutare, to nod)
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