NYASA , the third in
See also:size of the
See also:great lakes of Central Africa, occupying the
See also:southern end of the great rift-valley
See also:system which traverses the eastern
See also:half of the
See also:equatorial region from
See also:north to south . Extending from 9° 29' to 14° 25' S., or through nearly 5° of latitude, the lake
See also:measures along its major
See also:axis, which is slightly inclined to the west of north, exactly 350 m., while the greatest breadth, which occurs near the
See also:middle of its length, between 11° 30' and 12° 20' S., is 45 M . In the
See also:northern and southern thirds of the length the breadth varies generally from 20 to 30 ni., and the
See also:area may be estimated at I1,000 sq. m . The lake lies at an altitude of about 1650 ft. above the
See also:sea . The sides of the valley in which Nyasa lies, which are somewhat irregular towards its southern end, take a decided character of
See also:fault scarps in the northern third, and are continued as such beyond the northern extremity . Apart from the
See also:alluvium on the immediate shores, the lake lies almost entirely in granite and
See also:gneiss formations, broken, however, by a
See also:band of horizontally-bedded sandstones, which cuts the axis of the lake in about I0° 3o' S., the
See also:flat-topped, terraced
See also:form of the latter contrasting strangely with the jagged or rounded outlines of the former . Near the margin, overlying the sandstones, there are beds of
See also:limestone with remains of recent molluscs, pointing, like the raised beaches which occur elsewhere, to an upward
See also:movement of the coasts . Lacustrine deposits up to 700 ft. above the
See also:present lake-level have been discovered . Geologically, the lake is believed to be of no great age, a view supported by topographical evidence . The
See also:depth of the lake seems to vary in accordance with the steepness of the shores, increasing from south to north . The greater
See also:part of the northern half shows depths of over 200 fathoms, while a maximum of 430 fathoms was obtained by Mr . J .
E . S .
See also:Moore in 1899, off the high western
See also:coast in about 11° 40' S . A more
See also:complete series of soundings, however, since made by Lieut . Rhoades, and published in the
See also:Geographical Journal in 1902, gives a maximum of 386 fathoms off the same coast in II° to' S . The lake receives its
See also:water-supply chiefly from the streams which descend from the mountains to the north, all the
See also:rest becoming very small in the dry
See also:season . Like other lakes of Central Africa it is subject to fluctuations of level, apparently caused by alternations of dry and wet series of years . At the north-western end is a plain of great fertility, traversed by the Kivira, Songwe and other streams, rising either among the volcanic masses to the north or on the western
See also:plateau . Just north of ta° S. on the
See also:delta of the Rukuru, is the
See also:British station of Karonga, the northern
See also:port of
See also:call for the lake steamers, though with. but an open roadstead . Southwards the plain narrows, and in about tor S. the
See also:sandstone scarp of
See also:Mount Waller rises sheer above the indentation of Florence
See also:Bay, the high western plateaus continuing to fall steeply to the water in wooded cliffs for more than 8o m . In this stretch occur the
See also:land-locked bays of Ruarwe (II° 5' S.) and Nkata (11° 36' S.), and the mouth of the Rukuru (to° 43' S)., which drains the plateau from south to north . At Cape Chirombo (I 1 ° 4o' S.) the coast bends to the west, and soon the plateau escarpments recede, and are separated from the lake along its southern half by an undulating plain of varying width .
In I I ° 56' S. is the British station of Bandawe, and in 12° 55' that of Kota Kota, on a lake-like inlet, forming a sheltered
See also:harbour . A little north of the latter the Bua
See also:river, coming from a remote source on the upper plateau, enters by a projecting delta . At Domira Bay, in 13° 35', the coast turns suddenly east, contracting the lake to a comparatively narrow
See also:neck, with the British stations of Fort Rifu on the west, and Fort Maguire, near the headland of Makanjira Point, on the east . Beyond this the lake runs southwards into two bays separated by a granitoid peninsula, off which lie several small rocky islands . On this peninsula was placed the
See also:mission station of Livingstonia, the first to be established on the shores of Nyasa . From the extremity of the eastern bay the
See also:Shire makes its exit to the
See also:Zambezi . On the eastern side the plateau escarpments keep generally close to the lake, leaving few plains of any extent along its shores . The crest of the eastern water-
See also:shed runs generally parallel to the
See also:shore, which it approaches in places within 20 m . From the north point to to° 3o' S. the coast is formed by the unbroken
See also:wall of the
See also:Livingstone or Kinga range, rising where highest (9° 41' S.) fully 6000 ft. above the water . On this coast, on a projecting
See also:spit of land, is the German station of Old Langenburg, some to m. from the northern extremity . In lo° 3o' the plateau is broken by the valley of the Ruhuhu, the only important stream which enters the lake from the east . The formation is here sandstone, corresponding to that of Mount Waller on the opposite shore .
Just north of the Ruhuhu is the German station of Wiedhafen, on an excellent harbour, formerly Amelia Bay . South of the Ruhuhu the wall of mountains recedes somewhat, and the
See also:remainder of the eastern shore shows a variation between rocky cliffs, marshy plains of restricted area and groups of low hills . In 11° 16' is the deep inlet of Mbampa Bay, offering a sheltered anchor-age . South of it the coast forms a wide semicircular bay, generally
See also:rock-bound, and ending south in Maio Point (I2° to' S.), off which are the largest islands the lake possesses, Likoma and Chisamulu, the former measuring about 4 m. by 3 . In the southern half the coast is highest in about 13° to' S., where the Mapangi hills rise to 3000ft . Nyasa, reached in 1859 both by
See also:David Livingstone (from the south) and by the German traveller Albrecht Roscher (from the east), was explored by the former to about >°, and to its See Proc . R.G.S . (1883), p . 689; Geogr . Journal, vol. xii. p . 58o; J . E .
S . Moore, ib. vol. x. p . 289, and " TheGeology of Nyasaland," by A . R . Andrew and T . E . G .
See also:Bailey, with note on fossil
See also:fish remains, &c., by E . A . N .
See also:Arber and others and bibliography in vol . 66 of Quart .
Jnl . Geog . Society (May 1910) . (E .
NYANZA (from the ancient Bantu root word anza, a ri...
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