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JAMES EDWARD OGLETHORPE (1696—1785)

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Originally appearing in Volume V20, Page 25 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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JAMES EDWARD OGLETHORPE (1696—1785), English general and philanthropist, the founder of the state of Georgia, was born in London on the 21st of December 1696, the son of Sir Theophilus Oglethorpe (1650—1702) of Westbrook Place, Godalming, Surrey. He entered Corpus Christi College, Oxford, in 1714, but in the same year joined the army of Prince Eugene. Through the recommendation of the duke of Marlborough he became aide-de-camp to the prince, and he served with distinction in the campaign against the Turks, 1716—17, more especially at the siege and capture of Belgrade. After his return to England he was in 1722 chosen member of parliament for Haslemere. He devoted much attention to the improvement of the circumstances of poor debtors in London prisons; and for the purpose of providing an asylum for persons who had become insolvent, and for oppressed Protestants on the continent, he projected the settlement of a colony in America between Carolina and Florida (see GEORGIA). In 1745 Oglethorpe was promoted to the rank of major-general. His conduct in connexion with the Scottish rebellion of that year was the subject of inquiry by court-martial, but he was acquitted. In 1765 he was raised to the rank of general. He died at Cranham Hall, Essex, on the 1st of July 1785. Sir Theophilus Oglethorpe, the father, had four sons and four daughters, James Edward being the youngest son, and another James (b. 1688) having died in infancy. Of the daughters, Anne Henrietta (b. 168o-1683), Eleanor (b. 1684) and Frances Charlotte (Bolingbroke's " Fanny Oglethorpe ") may be specified as having played rather curious parts in the Jacobitism of the time; their careers are described in the essay on " Queen Oglethorpe " b iss A. Shield and A. Lang, in the latter's Historical Mysteries (1904),gd OGOW$, one of the largest of the African rivers of the second class, rising in 3° S. in the highlands known as the Crystal range, and flowing N.W. and W. to the Atlantic, a little south of the equator, and some 400 M. following the coast, north of the mouth of the Congo. Its course, estimated at 750 m., lies wholly within the colony of Gabun, French Congo. In spite of its considerable size, the river is of comparatively little use for navigation, as 1881. He died in London on the 1st of February 1885, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Thomas Towneley (1878-1900), and then by another son, Maurice Herbert Towneley (b. 1882). O'HIGGINS, BERNARDO (1778-1842), one of the foremost leaders in the Chilean struggle for independence and head of the first permanent national government, was a natural son of the Irishman Ambrosio O'Higgins, governor of Chile (1788-1796), and was born at Chillan on the 20th of August 1778. He was educated in England, and after a visit to Spain he lived quietly on his estate in Chile till the revolution broke out. Joining the nationalist party led by Martinez de Rozas, he distinguished himself in the early fighting against the royalist troops despatched from Peru, and was appointed in November 1813 to supersede J. M. Carrera in command of the patriot forces. The rivalry that ensued, in spite of O'Higgins's generous offer to serve under Carrera, eventually resulted in O'Higgins being isolated and overwhelmed with the bulk of the Chilean forces at Rancagua in 1814. O'Higgins with most of the patriots fled across the Andes to Mendoza, where Jose de San Martin (q.v.) was preparing a force for the liberation of Chile. San Martin espoused O'Higgins's part against Carrera, and O'Higgins, recognizing the superior ability and experience of San Martin, readily consented to serve as his subordinate. The loyalty and energy with which he acted under San Martin contributed not a little to the organization of the liberating army, to its transportation over the Andes, and to the defeat of the royalists at Chacabuco (1817) and Maipo (1818). After the battle of Chacabuco O'Higgins was entrusted with the administration of Chile, and he ruled the country firmly and well, maintaining the close connexion with the Argentine, co-operating loyally with San Martin in the preparation of the force for the invasion of Peru, and Seeking, as far as the confusion and embarrassments of the time allowed, to improve the welfare of the people. After the overthrow of the Spanish supremacy in Peru had freed the Chileans from fear of attack, an agitation set in for constitutional government. O'Higgins at first tried to maintain his position by calling a congress and obtaining a constitution which invested him with dictatorial powers. But popular discontent grew in force; risings took place in Concepcion and Coquimbo, and on the 28th of January 1823 O'Higgins was finally patriotic enough to resign his post of director-general, without attempting to retain it by force. He retired to Peru, where he was granted an estate and lived quietly till his death on the 24th of October 1842. See B. Vicuna Machenna, Vida de O'Higgins (Santiago, 1882), generally accepted that it was adapted into French from the and M. L. Armunbtegni, La Dictadura de OHiggins (Santiago, 1853) O. Span. huerco huer o uer o cognate with Ital. orco, i.e. Orcus both containing good accounts of de Chile, career. Also P. B. g 8 , Figueroa, Diccionario biogrdfico de Chile, 1550-1887 (Santiago, the Latin god of the dead and the infernal regions (see PLUTO), 1888), and J. B. Suarez, Rasgos biogrdficos de hombres notables de who in Romance folk-lore became a man-eating demon of the Chile (Valparaiso, 1886).
End of Article: JAMES EDWARD OGLETHORPE (1696—1785)
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