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Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V20, Page 31 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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OGYGES, or OGYGUS, in Greek mythology, the first king of Thebes. During his reign a great flood, called the Ogygian deluge, was said to have overwhelmed the land. Similar legends were current in Attica and Phrygia. Ogyges is variously described as a Boeotian autochthon, as the son of Cadmus, or of Poseidon. O'HAGAN, THOMAS O'HAGAN, 1ST BARON (1812-1885), lord chancellor of Ireland, was born at Belfast, on the 29th of May 1812. He was educated at Belfast Academical Institution, and was called to the Irish bar in 1836. In 184o he removed to Dublin, where he appeared for the repeal party in many political trials. His advocacy of a continuance of the union with England, and his appointment as solicitor-general for Ireland in 1861 and attorney-general in the following year, lost him the support of the Nationalist party, but he was returned to parliament as member for Tralee in 1863. In 1865 he was appointed a judge of common pleas, and in 1868 became lord chancellor of Ireland in Gladstone's first ministry. He was the first Roman Catholic to hold the chancellorship since the reign of James II., an act throwing open the office to Roman Catholics having been passed in 1867. In 187o he was raised to the peerage, and held office until the resignation of the ministry in 1874. In 188o he again became lord chancellor on Gladstone's return to office, but resigned in The main water-parting is formed by a range of hills which are mainly by the frequent shifting of the wind from N.W. to S.W. composed chiefly of drift and extend W.S.W. across the state from and from N.W. At Cleveland and Cincinnati the winds Trumbull county in the N.E. to Darke county, or about the middle I blow mostly from the S.E. of the W. border. North of this water-parting the rivers flow into Lake Erie; S. of it into the Ohio river. Nearly all of the streams in the N.E. part of the state have a rapid current. Those that flow directly into the lake are short, but some of the rivers of this region, such as the Cuyahoga and the Grand, are turned by drift ridges into circuitous courses and flow through narrow valleys with numerous falls and rapids. Passing the village of Cuyahoga Falls the Cuyahoga river descends more than 200 ft. in 3 M.; a part of its course is between walls of sandstone roo ft. or more in height, and near its mouth, at Cleveland, its bed has been cut down through 6o ft. of drift. In the middle N. part of the state the Black, Vermilion and Huron rivers have their sources in swamps on the water-parting and flow directly to the lake through narrow valleys. The till plains of north-western Ohio are drained chiefly by the Maumee and San-dusky rivers. with their tributaries, and the average fall of the Maumee is only 1.1 ft. per mile, while that of the Sandusky decreases from about 7 ft. per mile at Upper Sandusky to 2.5 ft. per mile below Fremont. South of the water-parting the average length of the rivers is greater than that of those N. of it, and their average fall per mile is much less. In the S.W. the Great Miami and Little Miami rivers have uniform falls through basins that are decidedly rolling and that contain the extremes of elevation for the entire state. The central and S. middle part is drained by the Scioto river and its tributaries. The basin of this river is formed mostly in Devonian shale, and is bounded on the W. by a limestone rim and on the E. by preglacial valleys filled with glacial drift. In its middle portion the basin is about 40 M. wide and only moderately rolling, but toward the mouth of the river the basin becomes narrow and is shut in by high hills. In the E. part of Ohio the Muskingum river and its tributaries drain an area of about 7750 sq. m. or nearly one-fifth of the entire state. Much of the unglacial or driftless portion of the state is embraced within its limits, and although the streams now have a gentle or even sluggish flow, they have greatly broken the surface of the country. The upper portion of the basin is about too m. in width, but it becomes quite narrow below Zanesville. The Ohio river flows for 436 M. through a narrow valley on the S. border of the state, and Lake Erie forms the N. boundary for a distance of 230 M. At the W. end of the lake are Sandusky and Maumee bays, each with a good natural harbour. In this vicinity also are various small islands of limestone formation which are attractive summer resorts. On Put-in--Bay Island are some interesting " hydration" caves, i.e. caves formed by the uplifting and folding of the rocks while gypsum was forming beneath; followed by the partial collapse of those rocks when the gypsum passed into solution.. Ohio has no large lakes within its limits, but there are several small ones on the water-parting, especially in the vicinity of Akron and Canton, and a few large reservoirs in the W. central section. Fauna.—Bears, wolves; bison, deer, wild turkeys and wild pigeons were common in the primeval forests of Ohio, but they long ago disappeared. Foxes are still found in considerable numbers in suitable habitats; opossums, skunks and raccoons are plentiful in some parts of the state; and rabbits and squirrels are still numerous. All the song-birds and birds of prey of the temperate zone are plentiful. Whitefish, bass, trout and pickerel are an important food supply obtained from the waters of the lake, and some perch, catfish and sunfish are caught in the rivers and brooks. Flora.—Ohio is known as the " Buckeye State " on account of the prevalence of the buckeye (Aesculus glabra). The state was originally covered with a dense forest mostly of hardwood timber, and although the merchantable portion of this has been practically all cut away, there. are still undergrowths of young. timber and a great variety of trees. The white oak is the most common, but there are thirteen other varieties of oak, six of hickory, five of ash, five of poplar, five of pine, three of elm, three of birch, two of locust and two of cherry. Beech, black walnut, butternut, chestnut, catalpa, hemlock and tamarack trees are also common. Among native fruits *are the blackberry, raspberry, elderberry, cranberry, wild plum and pawpaw (Asimina triloba). Buttercups, violets, anemones, spring beauties, trilliums, arbutus, orchids, columbine, laurel, honeysuckle, golden rod and asters are common wild flowers, and of ferns there are many varieties. Climate.—The mean annual temperature of Ohio is about 51 F.; in the N., 49.5°, and in the S., 53.5°. But except where influenced by Lake Erie the temperature is subject to great extremes; at Coalton, Jackson county, in the S.E. part of the state, the highest recorded range of extremes is from 104° to -38° or 142°; at Wauseon, Fulton county, near the N.W. corner, it is from 104° to -32° or 136° while at Toledo on the lake shore the range is only from 99° to -16° or 115° F. July is the warmest month, and in most parts of the state Jan vary is the coldest; in a few valleys, however, February has a colder record than January. The normal annual precipitation for the entire state is 38.4 in. It is greater in the S.E. and least in the N.W. At Marietta, for example, it is 42.1 in., but at Toledo it is only 30.8 in. Nearly 6o% of it comes in the spring and summer. The average annual fall of snow is about 37 in. in the N. and 22 in. in the S. The prevailing winds in most parts` are westerly, but sudden changes, as well as the extremes of temperaturs, are caused Soil.—In the driftless area, the S.E. part of the state, the soil is largely a decomposition of the underlying rocks, and its fertility varies according to their composition; there is considerable lime-stone In the E. central portion, and this renders the soil very productive. Ia the valleys also are strips covered with a fertile alluvial deposit. In the other parts of the state the soil is composed mainly of glacial drift, and is generally deep and fertile. It is deeper and more fertile, however, in the basins of the Great Miami and Little l\'liami rivers, where there is a liberal mixture of decomposed limestone and where extensive areas with a clay subsoil are covered with alluvial deposits. North of the lower course of the Maumee river is a belt of sand. but Ohio drift generally contains a large mixture of clay. Agriculture.—Ohio ranks high as an agricultural state. Of its total land surface 24;501,820 acres or nearly 94% was, in 1900, included in farms and 78.5 % of all the farm land was improved. There were altogether 276,719 farms; of these 93,028 contained less than 50 acres, 182,802 contained less than loo acres, 150,060 contained less than 175 acres, 26,659 contained 175 acres or more, and 164 contained moo acres or more. The average size of the farms decreased from 125.2 acres in1850 to 99.2 acres in 188o and 88.5 acres in 1900. Nearly seven-tenths of the farms were worked in 1900 by owners or part owners, 24,051 were worked by cash tenants. 51,88o were worked by share tenants, and 1969 were worked by negroes as owners, tenants or managers. There is a great variety of produce, but the principal crops are Indian corn, wheat, oats, hay, potatoes, apples and tobacco. In 1900 the acreage of cereals constituted 68.4. % of the acreage of all crops, and' the acreage of Indian corn, wheat and oats constituted 99.3% of the total acreage of cereals. The Indian corn crop was 67,501,144 bushels in 1870; 152,055,390 bushels in 1899 and 153,062,000 in 1909, when it was grown on 3,875,000 acres and the state ranked seventh among th'e states of the Union in the production of this cereal. The wheat crop was' 27,882,159 bushels in 187o; 50,376,800 bushels (grown on 3,209,014 acres) in 1899; and 23,532,000 bushels (grown on 1,480,000 acres) in 1909. The oat crop was 25,347,549 bushels in 1870; 42,050,910 bushels '(grown on 1,115,149 acres) in 1899; and 56,225,000 bushels (grown on 1,730,000 acres) in 1909. The barley crop decreased from 1,715,221 bushels in 1870 to .1,053,240 bushels in 1899 and 829,000 bushels in 1909. The number of swine was 1,964,770 in 1850; 3,285,789 in 1900; and 2,047,000 in 1910. The number of cattle was 1,358,947 in 185o; 2,117,925 in 1900; and 1,925,000 in 1910. In 1900 there were 868,832 and in 1910 947,000 milch cows in the state. The number of sheep decreased slightly between 187o and 1900, when there were 4,030,021; , in 1910 there were 3,203,000 sheep in the state. The number of horses was 463,397 in 185o; 1,068,170 in 1900; and 977,000 in 1910. The cultivation of tobacco was of little importance in the state until about 1840; but the product increased from 10,454,449 lb in 1850 to 34,735,235 lb in 188o, and to 65,957,100 lb in 1899, when the crop was grown on 71,422 acres; in 1909 the crop was 83,250,000 lb, gown on 90,000 acres. The value of all farm products in 1899 was 257,o65,826. Indian corn, wheat and oats are groan in all parts, but the W. half of the state produces about three-fourths of the Indian corn and two-thirds of the wheat, and in the N. half, especially in the N.W. corner, are the best oat-producing counties. The N.E. quarter ranks highest in the production of hay. Domestic animals are evenly distributed throughout the state; in no county was their total value, in June 1900, less than $500,000, and in only three counties (Licking, Trumbull and Wood) did their value exceed $2,000,000; in 73 counties their value exceeded ' $t,000,000, but was less than $2,000,000. Dairying and the production of eggs are also important industries in all sections. Most of the tobacco is grown in the counties on or near the S.W. border. Fisheries.—Commercial fishing is important only in Lake Erie. In 1903 the total catch there amounted to 10,748,986 lb, valued at $317,027. Propagation facilities are being greatly improved, and there are stringent laws for the protection of immature fish. Inland streams and lakes are well supplied with game fish; state laws prohibit the sale of game fish and their being taken, except with hook and line. Mineral Products.—The mineral wealth of Ohio consists largely of bituminous coal and petroleum, but the state also ranks high in the production of natural gas, sandstone, limestone, grindstone, lime and gypsum. The coal fields, comprising a total area of 1o,000 sq. m. or more, are in the E. half of the state. Coal was discovered here as early as 1770, and the mining of it was begun not later than 1828, but no accurate account of the output was kept until 1872, in which year it was 5.315,294 short tons; this was increased to 18,988,15o short tons in 1900, and to 26,270,639 short tons in 1908—in 1907 it was 32,142,419 short tons. There are 29 counties in which coal is produced, but 81.4% of it in 1908 came from Belmont, Athens, Jefferson, Guernsey, Perry, Hocking, Tuscarawas and Jackson counties. Two of the most productive petroleum fields of the United States are in part in Ohio; the Appalachian field in the E. and S. parts of the state, and the Lima-Indiana field in the N.W. part. Some petroleum was obtained in the S.E. as early as 1859, but the state's output was comparatively small until after petroleum Erie on the N. border. One of the first great public improvements made within the state was the connexion of these waterways by two canals—the Ohio & Erie Canal from Cleveland to Portsmouth, and the Miami & Erie Canal from Toledo to Cincinnati. The Ohio & Erie was opened throughout its entire length (309 m.) in 1832. The Miami & Erie was completed from Middletown to Cincinnati in 1827 ; in 1845 it was opened to the lake (250 M. from Cincinnati). The national government began in 1825 to extend the National Road across Ohio from Bridgeport, opposite Wheeling, West Virginia, through Zanesville and Columbus, and completed it to Springfield in 1837. Before the completion of the Miami & Erie Canal to Toledo, the building of railways was begun in this region, and in 1836 a railway was completed from that city to Adrian, Michigan. By the close of 1850 the railway mileage had increased to 575 m., and for the next forty years, with the exception of the Civil War period, more than 2000 M. of railways were built during each decade. At the close of 1908 there was a total mileage of 9,300.45 M. Among the railways are the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, the Baltimore & Ohio, the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, the New York, Chicago & St Louis, the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis (Pennsylvania), the Pittsburgh, Ft. Wayne & Chicago (Pennsylvania), the Nypano (Erie), the Wheeling & Lake Erie, the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton, the Detroit, Toledo & Ironton, and the Norfolk & Western. As the building of steam railways lessened, the building of suburban and interurban electric railways was begun, and systems of these railways have been rapidly extended until all the more populous districts are connected by them. made in Ohio increased from 57,000 barrels in 1890 to, 563,113 I Ohio has six ports of entry. They are Cleveland, Toledo, San-barrels in 1902 and to 1,521,764 barrels in 1908. Beds of rock dusky, Cincinnati, Columbus and Dayton, and the value of the foreign gypsum extend over an area of 150 acres or more in Ottawa 'county. commerce passing through these in 1909 amounted to $9,483,974 There is some iron ore in the eastern and south-eastern parts of the in imports (more than one-half to Cleveland) and $10,920,083 in state, and the mining of it was begun early in the 19th century; exports (nearly eight-ninths from Cleveland). Of far greater volume but the output decreased from 254,294 long tons in 1889 to only ~ than the foreign commerce is the domestic trade in coal, iron, lumber, 26,585 long tons (all carbonate) in 1908. Ohio, in 1908, produced &c., largely by way of the Great Lakes. 3,427,478 barrels of salt valued at $864,710. Other valuable Population.—The population of Ohio in the various census minerals are clay suitable for making pottery, brick and tile (in years was. (1800) 45,365; (1810) 230,760; (1820) 581,434; (1830) 937,903; (1840) 1,519,467; (1850) 1,980,329; (186o) 2,339,511; (1870) 2,665,260; (188o) 3,198,062; (189o) 3,672,316; (1900) 4,157,545; (1910) 4,767,121. In 1900 and in 1900. The value of the factory product was $748,670,855 in 1900 1910 it ranked fourth in population among the states. Of the and $960,811,857 in 1905.1 The most important manufacturing , total population in 1900, 4,060,204 or 97.6% were white and industry is that of iron and steel. This industry was established 97,341 were coloured (96,901 negroes, 371 Chinese, 27 Japanese near Youngstown in 1804. The value of the products increased and 42 Indians). Of the same total 3,698,811 or 88.9% were from $65,206,828 in 1890 to $138,935,256 in 1900 and to $152,859,124 native-born and 458,734 were foreign-born; 93.8% of the in 1905. Foundry and machine-shop products, consisting largely of foreign-born consisted of the following: 204,16o natives of engines, boilers, metal-working machinery, wood-working machinery, pumping machinery, mining machinery and stoves, rank second Germany, 65,553 of Great Britain, 55,018 of Ireland, 22,767 among the state's manufactures; their value increased from of Canada (19,864 English Canadian), 16,822 of Poland, 15,131 $43,617,072 in 1890 to $72,J99,632 in 1900, and to $94,507,691 in of Bohemia, 11,575 of Austria and 11,321 of Italy. In 1906 1905, Flour and grist mill products rank third in the state; the there were 1,742,873 communicants of different religious de-value of the products decreased from $39,468,409 in 1890 to $ 7,390,367 in 1900, and then increased tc $40,855,566 in 1905. nominations, over one-third being Roman Catholics and about eat (slaughtering and packing) was next in the value of the product, one-fifth Methodists. From 1890 to 1900 the urban population and increased from $20,660,780 in 1900 to $28,729,044 in 1905. I (i.e. population of incorporated places having 4000 inhabitants Clay products rank fifth in the state; they increased in value from or more) increased from 1,387,884 to 1,864,519, and the semi-$16,480,812 in 1900 to $25,686,870 in 1905. Boots and shoes rank sixth; their value increased from $8,489,728 in 1890 to $17,920,854 urban (i.e. population of incorporated places having Iess than in 1900 and to $25,140,220 in 1905. Other leading manufactures are ' 4000 inhabitants) increased from 458,033 to 549,741, but the malt liquors ($21,620,794 in 1905), railway rolling-stock consisting rural (i.e. population outside of incorporated places) decreased largely of cars ($21,428,227), men's clothing ($18,496,173), planing from 1,826,412 to 1,743,285• The largest cities are Cleveland, mill products ($17,725,711), carriages and wagons ($16,096,125), distilled liquors ($15,976,523), rubber and elastic goods ($15,963,603), Cincinnati, Columbus (the capital), Toledo, Dayton, Youngstown, furniture ($13,322,608), cigars and cigarettes ($13,241,230), agri- Akron, Canton, Springfield, Hamilton, Lima and Zanesville. cultural implements ($12,891,197), women's clothing ($12,803,582), Administration.—Ohio is governed under the constitution of lumber and timber products ($12,567,992), soap and candles 1851 Its amended in 1875, 1883, 1885, 1902, 1903, and 1905. An ($11,791,223), electrical machinery, apparatus and supplies amendment may be proposed at any time by either branch of the ($11,019,235), paper and wood pulp ($10,961,527) and refined 1 petroleum ($10,948,864). I General Assembly, and if after being approved by three-fifths of The great manufacturing centres are Cleveland, Cincinnati, the members of both branches it is also approved at a general Youngstown, Toledo, Columbus, Dayton and Akron, and in 1905 I election by a majority of those voting on the question it is declared the value of the products of these. cities amounted to 56.7% of 1 that for the entire state. A large portion of the iron and steel is adopted; a constitutional convention may be called after a manufactured in Cleveland, Youngstown, Steubenville, Bellaire, I favourable two-thirds vote of the members of 'each branch of Lorain and Ironton. Most of the automobiles are manufactured , the Assembly and a favourable popular vote—a majority of those in Cleveland; most of the cash registers and calculating machines in Dayton; most of the rubber and elastic goods in Akron; nearly one-half of the liquors and about three-fourths of the men's clothing in Cincinnati. East Liverpool leads in the manufacture of pottery; Toledo in flour and grist mill products; Springfield in agricultural { the suffrage was limited to " white male " citizens of the implements; Cincinnati and Columbus in boots and shoes; Cleve- United States, but since the adoption of the Fifteenth Amend-land in women's clothing. 1 The statistics of 1905 were taken under the direction of the United States Census Bureau, but products other than those of the factory system, such, for example, as those of the hand trades, were excluded. was discovered in the N.W. in 1884; in 1883 the output was only 47,632 barrels, four years later it was 5,022,632 barrels, and in 1896 it was 23,941,169 barrels, or 39% of the total output in the United States. For the next ten years, however, there was a decrease, and in 1908 the output had fallen to 10,858,797 barrels, of which 6,748,676 barrels (valued at $6,861,885) was obtained in the Lima district, 4,109,935 barrels (valued at $7,315,667) from the south-east district, and 186 barrels (valued at $950), suitable for lubricating purposes, from the Mecca-Belden district in Trumbull and Lorain counties. Natural gas abounds in the eastern, central and north-western parts of the state. That in the E. was first used in 1866, the N.W. field was opened in 1884, and the central field was opened in 1887. The value of the state's yearly flow increased steadily from $ioo,000 in 1885 to $5,215,669 in 1889, decreased from the latter year to $I,171,777 in 1897, and then increased to $8,244,835 in 1908. Some of the best sandstone in the United States is obtained from Cuyahoga and Lorain counties; it is exceptionally pure in texture (about 97 % being pure silica), durable and evenly coloured light buff, grey or blue grey. From the Ohio sandstone known as Berea grit a very large portion of the country's grindstones and pulpstones has been obtained; in 1908 the value of Ohio's output of these stones was $482,128. Some of the Berea grit is also suitable for making oilstones and scythestones. Although the state has a great amount of limestone, especially in Erie and Ottawa counties, its dull colour renders it unsuitable for most building purposes. It is, however, much used as a flux for melting iron and for making quick lime. The quantity of Portland cement 1908 the value of the clay working pro acts was $26,622,490) and d sand suitable for making glass. The total value of the state's mineral products in 1908 amounted to $134,499,335. Manufactures.—The total value of the manufactures increased from $348,298,390 in 188o to $641,688,064 in 189o, and to $832,438,113 voting on the question; and the question of calling such a convention must be submitted to a popular vote at least once every twenty years. Under the constitution of 1802 and 1851 Transportation and Commerce.—The most important natural ment to the Federal Constitution (1870), negroes vote, though means of transportation are the Ohio river on the S. border and Lake the constitution is unchanged. Since 1894 women who possess the usual qualifications required of men may vote for and be voted for as members of boards of education. The constitution requires that all elections be by ballot, and the Australian ballot system was adopted in 1891; registration is required in cities having a population of 11,800 or more. The executive department consists of a governor, lieutenant-governor, secretary of state, auditor, treasurer and attorney-general. As a result of the dispute between Governor Arthur St Clair and the Territorial legislature, the constitution of 1802 conferred nearly all of the ordinary executive functions on the legislature. The governor's control over appointments was strengthened by the constitution of 1851 and by the subsequent creation of statutory offices, boards and commissions, but the right of veto was not given to him until the adoption of the constitutional amendments of 1903. The power as conferred at that time, however, is broader than usual, for it extends not only to items in appropriation bills, but to separate sections in other measures, and, in addition to the customary provision for passing a bill over the governor's veto by a two-thirds vote of each house it is required that the votes for repassage in each house must not be less than those given on the original passage. The governor is elected in November of even-numbered years for a term of two years. He is commanderin-chief of the state's military and naval forces, except when they are called into the service of the United States. He grants pardons and reprieves on the recommendation of the state board of pardons. If he die in office, resign or be impeached, the officers standing next in succession are the lieutenant-governor, the president of the Senate, and the speaker of the House of Representatives in the order named. Members of the Senate and House of Representatives are elected for terms of two years; they must be residents of their respective counties or districts for one year preceding election, unless absent on public business of the state or of the United States. The ratio of representation in the Senate is obtained by dividing the total population of the state by thirty-five, the ratio in the House by dividing the population by one hundred. The membership in each house, however, is slightly above these figures, owing to a system of fractional representation and to the constitutional amendment of 1903 which allows each county at least one representative in the House of Representatives. The constitution provides for a reapportionment every ten years beginning in 1861. Biennial sessions are held beginning on the first Monday in January of the even-numbered years. The powers of the two houses are equal in every respect except that the Senate passes upon the governor's appointments and tries impeachment cases brought, before it by the House of Representatives. The constitution prohibits special, local and retroactive legislation, legislation impairing the obligation of contracts, and legislation levying a poll tax for county or state purposes or a tax on state, municipal and public school bonds (amendment of 1905), and it limits the amount and specifies the character of public debts which the legislature may contract. The judicial department in 1910 was composed of a supreme court of six judges, eight circuit courts,' of three judges each, ten districts (some with sub-divisions) of the common pleas court, the superior court of Cincinnati, probate courts, courts of insolvency in Cuyahoga and Hamilton counties, juvenile courts (established in 1904), justice of the peace courts and municipal courts. Under the constitution of 1802 judges were chosen by the legislature, but since 1851 they have been elected by direct popular vote—the judges of the supreme court being chosen at large. They are removable on complaint by a con-current resolution approved by a two-thirds majority in each house of the legislature. The constitution provides that the terms of supreme and circuit judges shall be such even number of years not less than six as may be prescribed by the legislature—the statutory provision is six years—that of the judges of the common pleas six years, that of the probate judges four years, that of other judges such even number of years not exceeding six as may be prescribed by the legislature—the statutory provision is six years—and that of justices of the peace such even number of years not exceeding four as may be thus F rescribed—the statutory provision is four years. Local Government.—The county and the township are the units of the rural, the city and the village the units of the urban local sass ' The provision for circuit courts was first made in the constitution by an amendment of 1883.government. The chief county authority is the board of commissioners of three members elected for terms of two years. The other officials are the sheriff, treasurer and coroner, elected for two years; the auditor, recorder, clerk of courts, prosecuting attorney, surveyor and infirmary directors, elected for two years; and the board of school examiners (three) and the board of county visitors (six, of whom three are women); appointed usually by the probate judge for three years. The chief township authority is the board of 'trustees of three members, elected by popular vote for two years. In the parts of the state settled by people from New England township meetings were held in the early days, but their functions were gradually transferred to the trustees, and by 1820 the meetings had been given up almost entirely. The other township officials are the clerk, treasurer, assessor, supervisor of roads, justices of the peace, constables, board of education and board of health. Under the constitution of 1802, municipal corporations were established by special legislation. The constitution of 1851, however, provided for a general law, and the legislature in 1852 enacted a " general municipal corporations act," the first of its kind in the United States. The system of classification adopted in time became so elaborate that many municipalities became isolated, each in a separate class, and the evils of special legislation were revived. Of the two chief cities, Cleveland (under a special act providing for the government of Columbus and Toledo, also) in 1892–1902 was governed under the federal plan, which centralized power in the hands of the mayor; in Cincinnati there was an almost hopeless diffusion of responsibility among the council and various executive boards. The supreme court in June 1902 decided that practically all the existing municipal legislation was special in character and was therefore unconstitutional. (State ex. rel. Kniseley vs. Jones, 66 Ohio State Reports, 453. See also 66 Ohio State Reports, 491.) A special session of the legislature was called, and a new municipal code was adopted on the 22nd of October which went into effect in April 1903; it was a compromise between the Cleveland and the Cincinnati plans, with some additional features necessary to meet the conditions existing in the smaller cities. In order to comply with the court's interpretation of the constitution, municipalities were divided into only two classes, cities and villages, the former having a population of five thousand or more; the chief officials in both cities and villages were the mayor, council, treasurer and numerous boards of commissions. This was an attempt to devise a system of government that would apply to Cleveland, a city of 400,000 inhabitants, and to Painesville with its 5000 inhabitants. The code was replaced by the Paine Law of 1909, which provided for a board of control (some-thing like that under the " federal plan " in Cleveland, Columbus and Toledo) of three members: the mayor and the directors (appointed and removable by the mayor) of two municipal departments —public service and public safety, the former including public works and parks, and the latter police, fire, charities, correction and buildings. The mayor's appointments are many, and are seldom dependent on the consent of the council. A municipal civil service commission of three members (holding office for three years) is chosen by the president of the board of education, the president of the city council, and the president of the board of sinking fund commissioners; the pay (if any) of these commissioners is set by each city. The city auditor, treasurer and solicitor are elected, as under the code. In 1908 a direct primary law was passed providing for party primaries, those of all parties in each district to be held at the same time (annually) and place, before the same election board, and at public expense, to nominate candidates for township and municipal offices and members of the school board; nominations to be by petition signed by at least 2 % of the party voters of the political division, except that for United States senators s of i % is the minimum. The law does not make the nomination of candidates for the United States Senate by this method mandatory nor such choice binding upon the General Assembly. Laws.—The property rights of husband and wife are nearly equal; a wife may hold her property the same as if single, and a widower or a widow is entitled to the use for life of one-third of the real estate of which his or her deceased consort was seized at the time of his or her death. Among the grounds on which a divorce may be obtained are adultery, extreme cruelty, fraud, abandonment for three years, gross neglect of duty, habitual drunkenness, a former existing marriage, procurement of divorce without the state by one party, which continues marriage binding on the other, and imprisonment in a penitentiary. For every family in which there is a wife, a minor son, or an unmarried daughter, a homestead not exceeding $1000 in value, or personal property not exceeding $500 in value, is exempt from sale for the satisfaction of debts. In 1908 an act was passed providing for local option in regard to the sale of intoxicating liquors, by an election to be called an initiative petition, signed by at least 35 % of the electors of a county. Charitable and Penal Institutions.—The state charitable and penal institutions are supervised by the board of charities of six members (" not more than three . . . from the same political party ") appointed by the governor, and local institutions by boards of county visitors of six members appointed by the probate judge. Each state institution in addition has its own board of trustees appointed by the governor, and each county infirmary is under the charge of three ?nfirmary directors chosen by popular vote. There are hospitals for the insane at Athens, Columbus, Dayton, Cleveland, Carthage (10 m. from Cincinnati; Longview Hospital), Massillon, Toledo and Lima; a hospital for epileptics at Gallipolis, opened in 1893; institutions for feeble-minded, for the blind (opened 1839) and for the deaf (opened 1829) at Columbus; a state sanatorium for tuberculous patients at Mt. Vernon (opened 1909) ; an institution for crippled and deformed children (authorized in 1907) ; a soldiers' and sailors' orphans' home at Xenia (organized in 1869 by the Grand Army of the Republic); a home for soldiers, sailors, marines, their wives, mothers and widows, and army nurses at Madison (established by the National Women's Relief Corps; taken over by the state, 1904); and soldiers' and sailors' homes at Sandusky (opened 1888), supported by the state, and at Dayton, supported by the United States. The state penal institutions are the boys' industrial school near Lancaster (established in 1854 as a Reform Farm), the girls' industrial home (1869) at Rathbone near Delaware, the reformatory at Mansfield (authorized 1884, opened 1896) and the penitentiary at Columbus (1816). Education.—Congress in 1785 set apart 1 sq. m. in each township of 36 sq. m. for the support of education The public school system, however, was not established until 1825, and then it developed very slowly. The office of state commissioner of common schools was created in 1837, abolished in 184o and revived in 1843. School districts fall into four classes—cities, villages, townships and special districts—each of which has its own board of education elected by popular vote. Laws passed in 1877, 1890, 1893 and 1902 have made education compulsory for children between the ages of eight and fourteen. The school revenues are derived from the sale and rental of public lands granted by Congress, and of the salt and swamp lands devoted by the state to such purposes, from a uniform levy of one mill on each dollar of taxable property in the state, from local levies (averaging 7'2 mills in township districts and 10.07 mills in separate districts in 1908), from certain fines and licences, and from tuition fees paid by non-resident pupils. The total receipts from all sources in 1908 amounted to $25,987,021; the balance from the preceding year was $1I,714,135, and the total expenditures were $24,695,157. Three institutions for higher education are supported in large measure by the state: Ohio University at Athens, founded in 1804 on the proceeds derived from two townships granted by Congress to the Ohio Company; Miami University (chartered in 1809) at Oxford, which received the proceeds from a township granted by Congress in the Symmes purchase; and Ohio State University (1873) at Columbus, which received the proceeds from the lands granted by Congress under the act of 1862 for the establishment of agricultural and mechanical colleges, and reorganized as a university in 1878. Wilber-force University (1856), for negroes, near Xenia, is under the control of the African Methodist Episcopal Church; but the state established a normal and industrial department in 1888, and has since contributed to its maintenance. Under an act of 1902 normal colleges, supported by the state, have also been created in connexion with Ohio and Miami universities. Among the numerous other colleges and universities in the state are Western Reserve University (1826) at Cleveland, the university of Cincinnati (opened 1873) at Cincinnati, and Oberlin College (1833) at Oberlin. Finance.—The revenues of the state are classified into four funds; the general revenue fund, the sinking fund, the state common school fund and the university fund. The chief sources of the general revenue fund are taxes on real and personal property, on liquors and cigarettes, on corporations and on inheritances; in 1909 the net receipts for this fund were $8,043,257, the disbursements $9,103,301, and the cash balance at the end of the fiscal year $3,428,705. There is a tendency to reduce the rate on real property, leaving it as a basis for local taxation. The rate on collateral inheritances is 5 %, on direct inheritances 2 %, on the excess above $3000. There are state, county and municipal boards of equalization. A special tax is levied for the benefit of the sinking fund—one-tenth of a mill in 1909. The commissioners of the fund are the auditor, the secretary of state and the attorney-general. The public debt, which began to accumulate in 1825, was increased by the canal expenditures to $16,88o,00o in 1843. The constitution of 1851 practically deprived the legislature of the power to create new obligations. The funded debt was then gradually reduced until the last installment was paid in 1903. There still remains, however, an irredeemable debt due to the common schools, Ohio University and Ohio State University, in return for their public lands. About one-half of the annual common school fund is derived from local taxes; the state levy for this fund in 1909 was one mill, and the total receipts were $2,382,353. The university fund is derived from special taxes levied for the four institutions which receive aid from the state; in 1909 the levy was 0.245 mills and the total receipts were $582,843. Several banks and trading houses with banking privileges were incorporated by special statutes between 1803 and 1817. Resentment was aroused by the establishment of branches of the Bank of the United States at Chillicothe and Cincinnati in 1817, and an attempt was made to tax them out of existence. State officials broke into the vaults of the Chillicothe branch in 1819 and took out Sloo,000 due for taxes. The Federal courts compelled a restoration of the money and pronounced the taxing law unconstitutional. In 1845 the legislature chartered for twenty years the State Bank of Ohio, based on the model of the29 State Bank of Indiana of 1834. It became a guarantee of conservative banking, and was highly successful. There were at one time thirty-six branches. Most of the state institutions secured Federal charters after the establishments of the national banking system (1863-1864), but the high price of government bonds and the large amount of capital required led to a reaction, which was only partially checked by the reduction of the minimum capital to $25,000 under the currency act of the 14th of March 1900. History.—Ohio was the pioneer state of the old North-West Territory, which embraced also what are now the states of Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin, and the N.E. corner of Minnesota. When discovered by Europeans, late in the first half of the 17th century, the territory included within what is now Ohio was mainly a battle-ground of numerous Indian tribes and the fixed abode of none except the Eries who occupied a strip along the border of Lake Erie. From the middle to the close of the 17th century the French were establishing a claim to the territory between the 'Great Lakes and the Ohio river by discovery and occupation, and although they had provoked the hostility of the Iroquois Indians they had helped the Wyandots, Miamis and Shawnees to banish them from all territory W. of the Muskingum river. Up to this time the English had based their claim to the same territory on the discovery of the Atlantic Coast by the Cabots and upon the Virginia, Massachusetts and Connecticut charters under which these colonies extended westward to the Pacific Ocean. In 1701, New York, seeking another claim, obtained from the Iroquois a grant to the king of England of this territory which they claimed to have conquered but from which they had subsequently been expelled, and this grant was confirmed in 1726 and again in 1744. About 1730 English traders from Pennsylvania and Virginia began to visit the eastern and southern parts of the territory and the crisis approached as a French Canadian expedition under Celeron de Bienville took formal possession of the upper Ohio Valley by planting leaden plates at the mouths of the principal streams. This was in 1749 and in the same year George II. chartered the first Ohio Company, formed by Virginians and London merchants trading with Virginia for the purpose of colonizing the West. This company in 1750 sent Christopher Gist down the Ohio river to explore the country as far as the mouth of the Scioto river; and four years later the erection of a fort was begun in its interest at the forks of the Ohio. The French drove the English away and completed the fort (Fort Duquesne) for themselves. The Seven Years' War was the immediate consequence and this ended in the cession of the entire North-West to Great Britain. The former Indian allies of the French, however, immediately rose up in opposition to British rule in what is known as the Conspiracy of Pontiac (see PONTIAC), and the supression of this was not completed until Colonel Henry Bouquet made an expedition (1764) into the valley of the Muskingum and there brought the Shawnees, Wyandots and Delawares to terms. With the North-West won from the French Great Britain no longer recognized those claims of her colonies to this territory which she had asserted against that nation, but in a royal proclamation of the 7th of October 1763 the granting of land W. of the Alleghanies was forbidden and on the 22nd of June 1774 parliament passed the Quebec Act which annexed the region to the province of Quebec. This was one of the grievances which brought on the War of Independence and during that war the North-West was won for the Americans by George Rogers Clark (q.v.). During that war also, those states which had no claims in the West contended that title to these western lands should pass to the Union and when the Articles of Con-federation were submitted for ratification in 1777, Maryland refused to ratify them except on that condition. The result was that New York ceded its claim to the United States in 178o, Virginia in 1784, Massachusetts in 1785 and Connecticut in 1786. Connecticut, however, excepted a strip bordering on Lake Erie for 120 M. and containing 3,250,000 acres. This district, known as the Western Reserve, was ceded in 1800 on condition that Congress would guarantee the titles to land already granted by the state. Virginia reserved a tract between the Little Miami and Scioto rivers, known as the Virginia Military District. for her soldiers in the War of Independence. When the war was over and these cessions had been made a great number of war veterans wished an opportunity to repair their broken fortunes in the West, and Congress, hopeful of receiving a large revenue from the sale of lands here, passed an ordinance on the loth of May 1785 by which the present national system of land-surveys into townships 6 m. sq. was inaugurated in what is now S.W. Ohio in the summer of 1786. In March 1786 the second Ohio Company (q.v.), composed chiefly of New England officers and soldiers, was organized in Boston, Massachusetts, with a view to founding a new state between Lake Erie and the Ohio river. The famous North-West Ordinance was passed by Congress on the 13th of July 1787. This instrument provided a temporary government for the Territory with the understanding that, as soon as the population was sufficient, the representative system should be adopted, and later that states should be formed and admitted into the Union. There were to be not less than three nor more than five states. Of these the easternmost (Ohio) was to be bounded on the N., E. and S. by the Lakes, Pennsylvania and the Ohio river, and on the W. by a line drawn due N. from the mouth of the Great Miami river to the Canadian boundary, if there were to be three states, or to its intersection with an E. and W. line drawn through the extreme S. bend of Lake Michigan, if there were to be five. Slavery was forbidden by the sixth article of the ordinance; Laurens (Bolivar) in Tuscarawas county to Fort Recovery in Mercer county, practically the whole E. and S. Ohio. The Jay Treaty was ratified in the same year, and in 1796 the British finally evacuated Detroit and the Maumee and Sandusky torts. By cessions and purchases in 1804, 18o8 and 1817-1818 the state secured all' of the lands of the Indians except their immediate homes, and these were finally exchanged for territory W. of the Mississippi. The last remnant migrated in 1841. General Wayne's victory was followed by an extensive immigration of New Englanders, of Germans, Scotch-Irish and Quakers from Pennsylvania, and of settlers from Virginia and Kentucky, many of whom came to escape the evils of slavery. This rapid increase of population led to the establishment of the organized Territorial government in 1799, to the restriction of that government in Ohio in 1800, and to the admission of the state into the Union in 1803. The Congressional Enabling Act of the 3oth of April 1802 followed that alternative of the North-West Ordinance which provided for five states in determining the boundaries, and in consequence the Indiana and Michigan districts were detached. A rigid adherence to the boundary authorized in 1787, however, would have resulted in the loss to Ohio of 470 sq. m. of territory in the N.W. part of the state, including the lake port of Toledo. After a long and bitter dispute—the Toledo War (see ToLEno) and the third article read: " Religion, morality and knowledge , the present line, which is several miles N. of the S. bend of Lake being necessary to good government and the happiness of man- Michigan, was definitely fixed in 18.37, when Michigan came into kind, schools and the means of education shall for ever be i the Union. (For the settlement of the eastern boundary, see encouraged." After the adoption of the North-West Ordinance PENNSYLVANIA.) the work of settlement made rapid progress. There were four After having been temporarily at Marietta, Cincinnati, Chilli main centres. The Ohio Company founded Marietta at the cothe and Zanesville the capital was established at Columbus mouth of the Muskingum in 1788, and this is regarded as the in 1816. oldest permanent settlement in the state. An association of Since Congress did not pass any formal act of admission there New Jerseymen, organized by John Cleves Symmes, secured has been some controversy as to when Ohio became a state. a grant from Congress in 1788-1792 to a strip of 248,540 acres i The Enabling Act was passed on the 3oth of April 1802, the on the Ohio between the Great Miami and the Little Miami, which first state legislature met on the 1st of March 1803, the Territorial came to be known as the Symmes Purchase. Their chief settle- judges gave up their offices on the 15th of April 1803, and the meets were Columbia (1788) and Cincinnati (1789). The Virginia Federal senators and representatives took their seats in Congress Military District, between the Scioto and the Little Miami, on the 17th of October 1803. Congress decided in 18o6 in reserved in 1784 for bounties to Virginia continental troops, connexion with the payment of salaries to Territorial officials was colonized in large measure by people from that state. Their that the 1st of March 1803 was the date when state government chief towns were Massieville or Manchester (1790) and Chillicothe began. During the War of 1812 the Indians under the lead of (1796). A small company of Connecticut people under Moses Tecumseh were again on the side of the British. Battles were Cleaveland founded Cleveland in 1796 and Youngstown was fought at Fort Meigs (1813) and Fort Stephenson (Fremont, begun a few years later, but that portion of the state made very 1873) and Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry's naval victory on slow progress until after the opening of the Ohio & Erie Canal Lake Erie in 1813 was on the Ohio side of the boundary line. in 1832. Owing to the prohibition of slavery the vast majority of the During the Territorial period (1787-1803) Ohio was first a early immigrants to Ohio came from the North, but, until the part of the unorganized North-West Territory (1787-1799), Mexican War forced the slavery question into the foreground, then a part of the organized North-West Territory (1999-18o0), the Democrats usually controlled the state, because the principles of that party were more in harmony with frontier ideas of equality. The Whigs were successful in the presidential elections in 1800. The first Territorial government was established at of 1836 and 184o, partly because of the financial panic and Marietta in July 1788, and General Arthur St Clair (1784- partly because their candidate, William Henry Harrison, was a 1818), the governor, had arrived in that month. His ad- " favourite son," and in the election of 1844, because of the ministration was characterized by the final struggle with the 1 unpopularity of the Texas issue. Victory was with the Democrats Indians and by a bitter conflict between the executive and the in 1848 and 1852, but since the organization of the Republican legislature, which greatly influenced the constitutional history party in 1854 the state has uniformly given to the Republican of the state. The War of Independence was succeeded by a ( presidential candidates its electoral votes. In the Civil War series of Indian uprisings. Two campaigns, the first under Ohio loyally supported the Union, furnishing 319,659 men for General Josiah Harmar (1753-1813) in 1790, and the second the army. Dissatisfaction with the President's emancipation under General St Clair in 1791, failed on account of bad manage- programme resulted in the election of a Democratic Congressional and then the organized North-West Territory (1800-1803), Indiana Territory having been detached from it on the W. ment and ignorance of Indian methods of warfare, and in 1793 General Anthony Wayne (q.v.) was sent out in command of a large force of regulars and volunteers. The decisive conflict, fought on the loth of August 1794, near the rapids of the Maumee, is called the battle of Fallen Timbers, because the Indians concealed themselves behind the trunks of trees which had been felled by a storm. Wayne's dragoons broke through the brush-wood, attacked the left flank of the Indians and soon put them to flight. In the treaty of Greenville (3rd August 1795) the Indians ceded their claims to the territory E. and S. of the Cuyahoga, the Tuscarawas, and an irregular line from Fort delegation in 1862, but the tide turned again after Gettysburg and Vicksburg; Clement L. Vallandigham, the Democratic leader, was deported from the state by military order, and the Republicans were successful in the elections of 1863 and 1864. A detachment of the Confederate cavalry under General John Morgan invaded the state in 1863, but was badly defeated in the battle of Buffington's Island (July 18th). Democratic governors were elected in 1873, 1877, 1883, 1889, 1905, 1908 and 191o. Five presidents have come from Ohio, William Henry Harrison, Rutherford B. Hayes, James A. Garfield, William McKinley, Jr., and William Howard Taft. East of the Rocky Mountains (Washington, 1891), and his Report on the Mound Explorations of the Bureau of Ethnology in the 12th Report (1894) of that- Bureau, supplementing his earlier bulletins, Problem of the Ohio Mounds and the Circular, Square and Octagonal Earthworks of Qhio. (1889) ; and W. K. Moorehead, Primitive Man in Ohio (New York, 1892). The best history is Rufus King, Ohio; First Fruits of the Ordinance of 1787 (Boston and New York, 1888), in the American Commonwealths " series. Alexander Black's Story of Ohio (Boston, 1888) is a short popular account. B. A. Hinsdale, The Old North-west (2nd ed., New York, 1899), is good for the period before 1803. Of the older histories Caleb Atwater, History of the State of Ohio, Natural and Civil (Cincinnati, 1838), and James W. Taylor, History of the State of Ohio: First Period 1650-1787 (Cincinnati, 1854), are useful. For the Territorial period, and especially for the Indian wars of 1790-1794, see W. H. Smith (ed.), The St Clair Papers: Life and Services of Arthur St Clair (2 vols., Cincinnati, 1882) ; Jacob Burnet, Notes on the Early Settlement of the North-Western Territory (Cincinnati, 1847), written from the Federalist point of view, and hence rather favourable to St Clair; C. E. Slocum, Ohio Country between 1783 and 1815 (New York, 1910); and John Armstrong's Life of Anthony Wayne in Sparks' " Library of American Bioggraphy " (Boston, 1834-1838), series i. vol. iv. See also F. P. Goodwin, The Growth of Ohio (Cincinnati, 1907) and R. E. Chaddock, Ohio before 185o (New York, 1908). There is considerable material of value, especially for local history, in the Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society Publications (Columbus, 1887), and in Henry Howe, Historical Collections of Ohio (1st ed., Cincinnati, 1847; Centennial edition [enlarged], 2 vols., Columbus, 1889-1891). T. B. Galloway, " The Ohio-Michigan Boundary Line Dispute," in the Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society Publications, vol. iv. pp. 199-230, is a good treatment of that complicated question. W. F. Gephart's Transportation and Industrial Development in the Middle West (New York, 1909), in the Columbia University Studies in History, Economics and, Public Law, is a commercial history of Ohio.
End of Article: OGYGES, or OGYGUS

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