OLONETS , a
See also:government of
See also:north-western Russia, extending from Lake
See also:Ladoga almost to the
See also:Sea, bounded W. by Finland, N. and E. by Archangel and
See also:Vologda, and S. by Novgorod and St
See also:Petersburg . The
See also:area is 57,422 sq. m., of which 6794 sq. m. are lakes . Its north-western portion belongs orographically and geologically to the Finland region; it is thickly dotted with hills reaching loon ft. in altitude, and diversified by numberless smaller ridges and hollows
See also:running from north-west to south-east . The
See also:rest of the government is a
See also:plateau sloping towards the marshy lowlands of the south . The
See also:geological structure is very varied . Granites, syenites and diorites, covered with Laurentian metamorphic slates, occur extensively in the north-west . Near Lake
See also:Onega they are overlain with Devonian sandstones and limestones, yielding marble and
See also:sandstone for
See also:building; to the south of that lake Carboniferous limestones and
See also:clays make their appearance . The whole is sheeted with
See also:clay, the bottom
See also:moraine of the
See also:great ice-
See also:sheet of the Glacial
See also:period . The entire region bears traces of glaciation, either in the shape of scratchings and elongated grooves on the rocks, or of eskers (dsar, selgas) running parallel to the glacial striations . Numberless lakes occupy the depressions, while a great many more have
See also:left evidences of their existence in the extensive marshes . Lake Onega covers 3764 sq. m., and reaches a
See also:depth of 400 ft . Lakes Zeg, Vyg, Lacha, Loksha, Tulos and Vodl cover from 140 to 480 sq. m. each, and their crustacean
See also:fauna indicates a former connexion with the Arctic Ocean .
See also:part of Lake Ladoga falls also within the government of Olonets . The
See also:rivers drain to the Baltic and White Sea basins . To the former
See also:system belong Lakes Ladoga and Onega, which are connected by the Svir and receive numerous streams; of these the Vytegra, which communicates with the
See also:Mariinsk canal-system, and the Oyat, an affluent of Lake Ladoga, are important for navigation . Large quantities of
See also:metal and
See also:flour are annually shipped on
See also:waters belonging to this government . The Onega
See also:river, which has its source in the south-east of the government and flows into the White Sea, is of minor importance . Sixty-three per cent of the area of Olonets is occupied by forests; those of the
See also:crown, maintained for
See also:shipbuilding purposes, extend to more than 800,000 acres . The
See also:climate is harsh and moist, the
See also:average yearly temperature at
See also:Petrozavodsk (61° 8' N.) being 33.6° F . (12.0° in
See also:January, 57.40 in
See also:July); but the thermometer rarely falls below—3o° F . The population, which numbered 321,250 in 1881, reached 367,902 in 1897, and 401,100 (estimate) in 1906 . They are principally Great Russians and Finns . The
See also:people belong mostly to the Orthodox Greek
See also:Church, or are Nonconformists .
See also:Rye and oats are the
See also:principal crops, and some
See also:barley and turnips are grown, but the
See also:total cultivated area does not exceed 21% of the whole government .
Thechief source of
See also:wealth is timber, next to which come fishing and
See also:hunting . Mushrooms and berries are exported to St Petersburg . There are quarries and iron-mines, saw-mills, tanneries, iron-
See also:works, distilleries and flour-mills . More than one-fifth of the entire male population leave their homes every
See also:year in
See also:search of temporary employment . Olonets is divided into seven districts, of which the chief towns are Petrozavodsk, Kargopol, Lodeinoye
See also:Pole, Olonets, Povyenets, Pudozh and Vytegra . It includes the Olonets
See also:district, a territory belonging to the crown, which covers 432 sq. m. and extends into the SerdobOl district of Finland; the ironworks were begun by
See also:Peter the Great in 1701-1714 . Olonets was colonized by Novgorod in the 11th century, and though it suffered much from
See also:Swedish invasion its towns soon became wealthy trading centres .
See also:Ivan III. annexed it to the principality of Moscow in the second
See also:half of the 16th century .
RICHARD OLNEY (1835— )
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