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OPHICLEIDE (Fr. ophicleide, basse d'h...

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Originally appearing in Volume V20, Page 128 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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OPHICLEIDE (Fr. ophicleide, basse d'harmonie; Ger. Ophikleid; Ital. oficleide), a brass wind instrument having a cup-shaped mouthpiece and keys, in fact a bass keyed-bugle. The name (from Gr. is, serpent, and KX ibes, keys), applied to it by Halary, the patentee of the instrument, is hardly a happy one, for there is nothing of the serpent about the ophicleide, which has the bore of the bugle and also owes the chromatic arrangement of the keys to a principle evolved by Halliday for the bugle, to be explained later on. The ophicleide is almost perfect theoretically, for it combines the natural harmonic scale of the brass wind instruments having cup-shaped mouthpieces, such as the trumpet, with a system of keys, twelve in number, one for each chromatic semitone of the scale; it is capable of absolutely accurate intonation. It consists of a wooden, or oftener brass, tube with a conical bore having the same proportions as that of the bugle but not wide enough in proportion to its length to make the fundamental or first note of the harmonic series of much practical use. The tube, theoretically 1 8 ft. long, is doubled upon itself once, terminating at the narrow end in a tight coil, from which protrudes the straight piece known as the crook, which bears the cup-shaped mouthpiece; the wide end of the tube terminates in a funnel-shaped bell pointing upwards. The production of sound is effected in the ophicleide as in other instruments with cup- or funnel-shaped mouthpieces (see HoRN). The lips stretched across the mouthpiece act as vibrating reeds or as the vocal chords in the larynx. The breath of the performer, compressed by being forced through the narrow opening between the lips, sets the latter in vibration. The stream of air, instead of proceeding into the cup in an even flow—in which case there would be no sound--is converted into a series of pulsations by the trembling of the lips. On being thrown into communication with the main stationary column of air at the bottom of the cup, the pulsating stream generates " sound waves," each consisting of a half wave of expansion and of a half wave of compression. On the frequency per second of the sound waves as they strike the drum of the ear depends the pitch of the note, the acuteness of the sound varying in direct proportion to the frequency. To ensure a higher frequency in the sound waves, their length must be decreased. Two things are necessary to bring this about without shortening the length of the tube: (I) the opening between the lips, fixed at each end by contact with the edges of 1 For an explanation of the difference between theory and practice in the length of the tubes of wind instruments, see Victor Mahillon, as skilful lighting of the stage. Certainly Strauss does not in Le cor " (Les instruments de musique au musee du conservatoire Y royal de musique de Bruxelles, pt. ii. Brussels and London, 1907), his whole time-limit of an hour and three-quarters use as many pp. 27-29. Mozart's lesson of dramatic movement has been better learnt than anything peculiar to either music or literature; for, while his libretti show how little that quality has to do with poetic merit, the whole history of Italian opera from Rossini to Mascagni shows how little it has to do with good music. On the other hand, the musical coherence of the individual classical forms used in opera has caused many critics to miss the real dramatic ground of some of the most important operatic conventions. The chief instance of this is the repetition of words in arias and at climaxes, a convention which we are over-ready to explain as a device which prolongs situations and delays action for the sake of musical design. But in the best classical examples the case is almost the reverse, for the aria does not, as we are apt to suppose, represent a few words repeated so as to serve for a long piece of music. Without the music the drama would have required a long speech in its place; but the classical composer cannot fit intelligible music to a long string of different sentences, and so the librettist reduces the speech to mere headlines and the composer supplies the eloquence. Herein lies the meaning of Mozart's rapid progress from vocal concertos like " Fuor del mar" in Idomeneo and " Martern aller Arten " in Die Entfiihrung to genuine musical speeches like " Non piel andrai " in Figaro, in which the obvious capacity to deal with a greater number of 'words is far less important than the naturalness and freedom with which the pace of the declamation is varied—a freedom unsurpassed even in the Elektra of Richard Strauss. With Wagnerian polyphony and continuity music became capable of treating words as they occur in ordinary speech, and repetitions have accordingly become out of place except where they would be natural without music. But it is not here that the real gain in freedom of movement lies. That gain has been won, not by Wagner's negative reforms alone, but by his combination of negative reform with new depths of musical thought; and modern opera is not more exempt than classical opera from the dangers of artistic methods that have become facile and secure. If the libretto has the right dramatic movement, the modern composer need have no care beyond what is wanted to avoid interference with that movement. So long as the music arouses no obviously incompatible emotion and has no breach of continuity, it may find perfect safety in being meaningless. The necessary stagecraft is indeed not common, but neither is it musical. Critics and public will cheerfully agree in ascribing to the composer all the qualities of the dramatist; and three allusions in the music of one scene to that of another will suffice to pass for a marvellous development of Wagnerian Leit-motif. Modern opera of genuine artistic significance ranges from the • light song-play type admirably represented by Bizet's Carmen to the exclusively " atmospheric " impressionism of Debussy's Pelleas et Melisande. Both these extremes are equally natural in effect, though diametrically opposite in method: for both types eliminate everything that would be inadmissible in ordinary drama. If we examine the libretto of Carmen as an ordinary play we shall find it to consist mainly of actual songs and dances, so that more than half of the music would be necessary even if it were not an opera at all. Debussy's opera differs from Maeterlinck's play only in a few omissions such as would probably be made in ordinary non-musical performances. His musical method combines perfect Wagnerian continuity with so entire an absence of Leit-motif that there are hardly three musical phrases in the whole opera that could be recognized if they recurred in fresh contexts. The highest conceivable development of Wagnerian continuity has been attained by Strauss in Salome and Elektra; these operas being actually more perfect in dramatic movement than the original plays of Wilde and Hofmannsthal. But their use of Leit-motif, though obvious and impressive, is far less developed than in Wagner; and she poly-phony, as distinguished from the brilliant instrumental technique, is, like that technique, devoted mainly to realistic and physically exciting effects that crown the impression in much the same way the mouthpiece, must be made narrower by greater tension; (2) the breath must be sent through the reduced aperture in a more compressed form and with greater force, so that the exciting current of air becomes more incisive. An exact proportion, not yet scientifically determined, evidently exists between the amount of pressure and the degree of tension, which is unconsciously regulated by the performer, excess of pressure in pro-portion to the tension of the lips producing a crescendo by causing amplitude of vibration instead of increased speed. When the fundamental note of a pipe is produced, the tension of the lips and pressure of breath proportionally combined are at their minimum for that instrument. If both be doubled, a node is formed half way up the pipe, and the column of air no longer vibrates as a whole, but as two separate parts, each half the length of the tube, and the frequency of the sound waves is doubled in consequence. The practical result is the production of the second harmonic of the series an octave above the fundamental. The formation of three nodes and therefore of three separate sound waves produces a note a twelfth above the fundamental, known as the third harmonic, and so on in mathematical ratio. This harmonic series forms the natural scale of the instrument, and is for the ophicleide the following: (T) 2 3 Fundamental. In some cases the fundamental is difficult to obtain, and the harmonics above the eighth are not used. The ophicleide has in addition to its natural scale eleven or twelve lateral holes covered by keys, each of which, when successively opened, raises the pitch of the harmonic series a semitone, with the exception of the first, an open key, which on being closed lowers the pitch a semitone. There were ophicleides in C and in B5, the former being the more common; contrabass ophicleides were also occasionally made in F and E5. The keys of the ophicleide, being placed in the lowest register, were intended to bind together by chromatic degrees the first and second harmonics. The compass is a little over three octaves, from t r"_ = with chromatic semitones throughout. The unsatisfactory timbre of the ophicleide led to its being superseded by the bass tuba; but it seems a pity that an instrument so powerful, so easy to learn and understand, and capable of such accurate intonation, should have to be discarded. The lower register is rough, but so powerful that it can easily sustain above it masses of brass harmonics; the medium is coarse in tone, and the upper wild and unmusical. Although a bass keyed-bugle, the ophicleide owes something of its origin to the application of keys to the serpent (q.v.), a wind instrument, the invention of which is generally attributed to Edme Guillaume, canon of Auxerre, about 1590. The serpent remained in its primitive form for nearly two centuries, and then only it was attempted to improve it by adding keys. It was a musician named Regibo,' belonging to the orchestra of the church of St Pierre at Lille, who, about 178o, first thought of giving it the shape of a bassoon. The merit of this innovation was rapidly recognized in England and Germany. Still, to follow Gerber,' one Frichot, who was established in London, published in 1800 a description of an instrument, entirely of brass, manufactured by J. Astor, which he claimed as his invention, calling it the basshorn, but which was no other in principle than the new serpent of Regibo. It only made its way to France and Belgium after the passage of the allied armies in 1815. The English brass basshorn was designated on the Continent the English or the Russian basshorn, the " serpent anglais " or the basson russe." Under this last name all instruments of the form, whether of wood or brass, were later on confounded in France and Belgium. The " basson russe " remained in great vogue until the appearance of the ophicleide, to disappear with it in the complete revolution brought about by the invention of pistons. The invention of the ophicleide is generally but falsely attributed to Alexandre Frichot, a professor of music at Lisieux, department of Calvados, France. The instrument, which the inventor called basse-trompette," was approved of as early as 13th November i8o6 by a commission composed of professors of the Paris Con- ' Gerber, Lexicon der Tonkiinstler (Leipzig, 1790). 2 Lexikon, edition of 1812. servatoire, but the patent bears the date 31st December 1810. The basse-trompette," which Frichot in his specification had at first, in imitation of the English basshorn, called " basse cor," was, like the English instrument, entirely of brass, and had, like it, six holes; it only differed in a more favourable disposition brought about by thecurvings of the tube, and by the application of four crooks which permitted the instrument to be tuned " in C low pitch and C high pitch for military bands, in C # for churches, and in D for concert use." The close relationship between the two instruments suggests the question whether this was the Frichot who worked with Astor in London in 1800. The first idea of adding keys to instruments with cupped mouth-pieces, unprovided with lateral holes, with the aim of filling up some of the gaps between the notes of the harmonic scale, goes back, according to Gerber (Lexicon of 1790), to KSlbel, a hornplayer in the Russian imperial band, about 1760. Anton Weidinger,3 trumpeter in the Austrian imperial band, improved upon this first attempt, and applied it in 1800 to the trumpet. But the honour belongs to Joseph Halliday, bandmaster of the Cavan militia, of being the first to conceive, in 1810, the disposition of a certain number of keys along the tube, setting out from its lower extremity, with the idea of producing by their successive or simultaneous opening a chromatic scale throughout the extent of the instrument. The bugle-horn was the object of his reform; the scale of which, he says, in the preamble of his patent, " until my invention contained but five tones, viz. r _I My improvements on that -see instrument are five keys, to be used by the performer according to the annexed scale, which, with its five original notes, render it capable of producing twenty-five separate tones in regular progression." Fig. I represents the keyed bugle of Joseph Halliday. It was not until 1815 that the use of the new instrument spread upon the Continent. We find in the account-books of a Belgian maker, Tuerlinckx of Mechlin, that his first supply of a bugle-horn bears the date of 25th March 1815, and it was made " aen den Heer Muldener, lieutenant in het regiment due d'York." The acoustic principle inaugurated by Halliday consisted in binding together by chromatic degrees the second and third harmonics, to B- FIG. 1.—Keyed . He attained it, as we have just seen, Bugle. by the help of five keys. The principle once discovered, it became easy to extend it to instruments of the largest size, of which the compass, as in the "basson russe," began with the fundamental sound. It was simply necessary to bind this fundamental to the next harmonic sound —a- by a larger number of keys. This was done in 1817 by Jean Hilaire Aste, known as Halary, a professor of music and instru- ment-maker at Paris. We find the description of the instruments for which he sought a patent in the Rapport de l'Academie Royale des Beaux-Arts de l'Institut de France, meeting of the 19th of July 1817. These instruments were three in number: (t) the clavi-tube, a keyed trumpet; (2) the quinti-tube, or quinti-clave; (3) the ophicleide, a keyed serpent. The clavitube was no other than the bugle-horn slightly modified in some details of construction, and reproduced in the different tonalities A5, F, E5, D, C, B5, A and A5. The quinti-tube had nearly the form of a bassoon, and was, in the first instance, armed with eight keys and constructed in two tonalities, F and E. This was the instrument afterwards named " alto ophicleide." The ophicleide (fig. 2) had the same form as the quinti-tube. It was at first adjusted with nine or ten keys, and the number was carried on to twelve—each key FIG.2.—Ophicleide to give a semitone (additional patent of 16th of Halary. August 1822). The ophicleide or bass of the harmony was made in C and in Bb, the contra-bass in F and in Eb.' The announcement of Weidinger's invention of a Klappentrompete, or trumpet with keys, appears in the Allg. musik. Ztg. (Leipzig, November 1802), p. 158; and further accounts are given in January 1803, p. 245, and 1815, p. 844. ' The report of the Academie des Beaux-Arts on the subject of this invention shows a strange misconception of it, which it is interesting to recall. " As to the two instruments which M. Halary designs 5 6 7 8 9 to u It is certain that from the point of view of invention Halary's labours had only secondary importance; but, if the principle of keyed chromatic instruments with cupped mouthpiece' goes back to Halliday, it was Halary's merit to know how to take advantage of the principle in extending it to instruments of diverse tonalities, in grouping them in one single family, that of the bugles, in so complete a manner that the improvements of modern manufacture have not widened its limits either in the grave or the acute direction. Keyed chromatic wind instruments made their way rapidly; to their introduction into military full or brass bands we can date the regeneration of military music. After pistons had been invented some forty years, instruments with keys could still reckon their partisans. Now these have utterly disappeared, and pistons or rotary cylinders remain absolute masters of the situation. (V. M.; K. S.)
End of Article: OPHICLEIDE (Fr. ophicleide, basse d'harmonie; Ger. Ophikleid; Ital. oficleide)
OPERA (Italian for " work ")

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