Online Encyclopedia

ORANGEMEN

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V20, Page 160 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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ORANGEMEN, members of the Orange Society, an association of Irish Protestants, originating and chiefly flourishing in Ulster, but with ramifications in other parts of the United Kingdom, and in the British colonies. Orangemen derive their name from King William III. (Prince of Orange). They are enrolled in lodges in the ordinary form of a secret society. Their toasts, about which there is no concealment, indicate the spirit of the Orangemen. The commonest form is " the glorious, pious and immortal memory of the great and. good King William, who saved us from popery, slavery, knavery, brass money and wooden shoes," with grotesque or truculent additions according to the orator's taste. The brass money refers to James II.'s finance, and the wooden shoes to his French allies. The final words are often " a fig for the bishop of Cork," in allusion to Dr Peter Browne, who, in 1715, wrote cogently against the practice of toasting the dead. Orangemen are fond of beating drums and flaunting flags with the legend " no surrender," in allusion to Londonderry. Orangeism, is essentially political. Its original object was the maintenance of Protestant ascendancy, and that spirit still survives. The first regular lodges were founded in 1795, but the system existed earlier. The Brunswick clubs, founded to oppose Catholic emancipation, were sprigs from the original Orange tree. The orange flowers of the Lilium bulbiferum are worn in Ulster on the 1st and 12th July, the anniversaries of the Boyne and Aughrim. Another great day is the 5th of November, when William III. landed in Torbay. ORANG-UTAN (" man of the woods "), the Malay name of the giant red man-like ape of Borneo and Sumatra, known to the Dyaks as the mias, and to most naturalists as Simia satyrus. The red, or brownish-red, colour of the long and coarse hair at once distinguishes the orang-utan from the African apes; a further point of distinction being the excessive length of the arms, which are of such proportions that the animal when in the upright posture (which it seldom voluntarily assumes) can rest on its bent knuckles. Very characteristic of the old males, which may stand as much as 51 ft. in height, is the lateral expansion of the cheeks, owing to a kind of warty growth, thus producing an extraordinarily broad and flattened type of face. Such an expansion is however by no means characteristic of all the males of the species, and is apparently a feature of racial value. Another peculiarity of the males is the presence of a huge throat-sac or pouch on the front of the throat and chest, which may extend even to the arm-pits; although present in females, it does not reach nearly the same dimensions in that sex. More than half-a-dozen separate races of orang-utan are recognized in Borneo, where, however, they do not appear to be restricted to separate localities. In Sumatra the Deli and Langkat district is inhabited by S. satyrus deliensis and Abong by S. s. abongensis. In Borneo the red ape inhabits the swampy forest-tract at the foot of the mountains. In confinement these apes (of which adult specimens have been exhibited in Calcutta) appear very slow and deliberate in their movements; but in their native forests they swing themselves from bough to bough and from tree to tree as fast as a man can walk on the ground beneath. They construct platforms of boughs in the trees, which are used as sleeping-places, and apparently occupied for several nights in succession. Jack-fruit or durian, the tough spiny hide of which is torn open with their strong fingers, forms the chief -food of orang-utans, which also consume the luscious mangustin and other fruits. (See PRIMATES.)
End of Article: ORANGEMEN
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