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ORDUIN

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Originally appearing in Volume V20, Page 238 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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ORDUIN - NASHCHOKIN, ATHANASY LAVRENTEVICH (?-168o), Russian statesman, was the son of a poor official at Pskov, who saw to it that his son was taught Latin, German and mathematics. Athanasy began his public career in 1642 as one of the delineators of the new Russo-Swedish frontier after the peace of Stolbova. Even then he had a great reputation at Moscow as one who thoroughly understood " German ways and things." He was one of the first Muscovites who diligently collected foreign books, and we hear of as many as sixty-nine Latin works being sent to him at one time from abroad. He attracted the attention of the young tsar Alexius by his resource-fulness during the Pskov rebellion of 165o, which he succeeded in localizing by personal influence. At the beginning of the Swedish War, Orduin was appointed to a high command, in which he displayed striking ability. In 1657 he was appointed minister-plenipotentiary to treat with the Swedes on the Narova river. He was the only Russian statesman of the day with sufficient fore-sight to grasp the fact that the Baltic seaboard, or even a part of it, was worth more to Muscovy than ten times the same amount of territory in Lithuania., and, despite ignorant jealousy of his colleagues, succeeded (Dec. 1658) in concluding a three-years' truce whereby the Muscovites were left in possession of ali their conquests in Livonia. In 166o he was sent as plenipotentiary to a second congress, to convert the truce of 1658 into a permanent peace. He advised that the truce with Sweden should be prolonged and Charles II. of England invited to mediate a northern peace. Finally he laid stress upon the immense importance of Livonia for the development of Russian trade. On being overruled he retired from the negotiations. He was the chief plenipotentiary at the abortive congress of Durovicha, which met in 1664, to terminate the Russo-Polish War; and it was due in no small measure to his superior ability and great tenacity of purpose that Russia succeeded in concluding with Poland the advantageous truce of Andrussowo (Feb. 1667). On his return to Russia he was created a boyar of the first class and entrusted with the direction of the foreign office, with the title of " Guardian of the great Tsarish Seal and Director of the great Imperial Offices." He was, in fact, the first Russian chancellor. It was Orduin who first abolished the onerous system of tolls on exports and imports, and established a combination of native merchants for promoting direct commercial relations between Sweden and Russia. He also set on foot a postal system between Muscovy, Courland and Poland, and introduced gazettes and bills of exchange into Russia. With his name, too, is associated the building of the first Russian merchant-vessels on the Dvina and Volga. But his whole official career was a constant struggle with narrow routine and personal jealousy on the part of the boyars and clerks of the council. He was last employed in the negotiations for con-firming the truce of Andrussowo (September 1669; March 1670). In January 1671 we hear of him as in attendance upon the tsar on the occasion of his second marriage; but in February the same year he was dismissed, and withdrew to the Kruipetskymonastery near Kiev, where he took the tonsure under the name of Antony, and occupied himself with good works till his death in 1680. In many things he anticipated Peter the Great. He was absolutely incorruptible, thus standing, morally as well as intellectually, far above the level of his age. See S. M. Solovev, History of Russia (Rus.), vol. xi. (St Petersburg, 1895, seq.) ; V. Ikonnikov, " Biography of Orduin-Nashchokin " (in Russkaya Starina, Nos. 11-12) (St Petersburg, 1883) ; R. Nisbet Bain, The First Romanovs (London, 1905, chaps. 4 and 6). (R. N. B.)
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