See also:regent of France, son of
See also:Philip I., duke of
See also:Orleans, and his second wife, the princess palatine, was
See also:born on the 2nd of
See also:August 1674, and had his first experience of arms at the
See also:siege of
See also:Mons in 1691 . His
See also:marriage with Mlle de
See also:Blois, the legitimized daughter of
See also:Louis XIV., won him the favour of the
See also:king . He fought with distinction at Steinkerk,
See also:Neerwinden and Namur (1692–1695) . During the next few years, being without employment, he studied natural science . He was next given a command in Italy (1706) and in Spain (1707–1708) where he gained some important successes, but he cherished lofty ambitions and was suspected of wishing to take the place of Philip V. on the
See also:throne of Spain . Louis XIV. was angry at these pretensions, and for a long
See also:time held him in disfavour . In his will, however, he appointed him
See also:president of the council of regency of the
See also:young King Louis XV . (1715) . After the
See also:death of the king, the duke of Orleans went to the
See also:parlement, had the will annulled, and himself invested with absolute power . At first he made a
See also:good use of this, counselling
See also:economy, decreasing
See also:taxation, disbanding 25,000 soldiers and restoring liberty to the persecuted Jansenists . But the inquisitorial
See also:measures which he had begun against the financiers led to disturbances . He was, moreover, weak enough to countenancethe risky operations of the banker
See also:Law (1717), whose bankruptcy, led to such a disastrous crisis in the public and private affairs of France .
There existed a party of malcontents who wished totransfer the regency from Orleans to Philip V., king of Spain . A
See also:conspiracy was formed, under the inspiration of
See also:Alberoni, first
See also:minister of Spain, and directed by the
See also:prince of Cellamare,
See also:ambassador in France, with the complicity of the duke and duchess of Maine; but in 1718 it was discovered and defeated .
See also:Dubois, formerly tutor to the duke of Orleans, and now his all-powerful minister, caused war to be declared against Spain, with the support of the emperor, and of England and
See also:Holland (Quadruple
See also:Alliance) . After some successes of the French marshal, the duke of
See also:Berwick, in Spain, and of the imperial troops in
See also:Sicily, Philip V. made peace with the regent (1720) . On the majority of the king, which was declared on the 15th of
See also:February 1723, the duke of Orleans resigned the supreme power; but he became first minister to the king, and remained in
See also:office till his death on the 23rd of
See also:December 1723 . The regent had
See also:great qualities, both brilliant and solid, which were unfortunately spoilt by an excessive taste for pleasure . His dissolute
See also:manners found only too many imitators, and the regency was one of the most corrupt periods in French
See also:history . See J . B . H . R .
See also:Capefigue, Histoire de Philippe d'Orleans, regent de France (2 vols.,
See also:Paris, 1838) ; A .
Baudrillart, Philippe V. et la tour de France, vol. ii . (Paris, 189o) ; and L . Wiesener, Le regent, l'
See also:abbe Dubois et
See also:les Anglais (3 vols., Paris, 1891-1899) . (M .
PHILIP I ORLEANS
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