OSROENE , or OsRHOENE, a
See also:district of
See also:Mesopotamia, in the
See also:country on the upper Bilechas (Belichus; mod . Nahr Belik, Bilikh), the tributary of the
See also:Euphrates, with its capital at Edessa (q.v.), founded by 'Seleucus I . About 130 B.C . Edessa was occupied by a nomadic Arabic tribe, the Orrhoei (Plin. v . 85; vi . 25, 117, 129), who founded a small state ruled by their chieftains with the title of
See also:kings . After them the district was called Orrhoene (thus in the inscriptions, in Pliny and Dio Cassius), which occasionally has been changed into Osroene, in assimilation to the
See also:Parthian name
See also:Osroes or
See also:Chosroes (Khosrau) . The founder of the
See also:dynasty is therefore called Osroes by Procop .
See also:Bell Pers. i . 17; but Orhai or Urhai, son of Hewya (i.e . " the i Another supposed old
See also:form of the name is Orfraie "; but that is said by M .
See also:Rolland (Faune popul .
France, ii. p . 9, note), quoting M . Suchier (Zeitschr. rom . Philol. i. p . 432), to arise from a mingling of two wholly different
See also:sources: (i) Oripelargus, Oriperagus, Orprais and (2) Ossifraga . " Orfraie " again is occasion-ally interchanged with Effraie (which, through such dialectical forms as Fresaze, Fressaia, is said to come from the Latin praesaga), the ordinary French name for the
See also:owl, Aluco flammeus (see Own) . According to
See also:Dictionary (i. p . 408), Asprey " is the
See also:English form; but "
See also:Osprey " is given by
See also:Cotgrave, and is found as early as the 15th century . 2 Two
See also:good examples of the different localities chosen by this
See also:bird for its
See also:nest are illustrated in Ootheca Wolleyana, pls . B . & H . It snake "), in the
See also:chronicle of Dionysius of .
Tellmahre; he is no
See also:personality, but the eponym of the tribe . In the Syrian
See also:Doctrine of Addai (ed . Philipps 1876, p . 46) he is called Arjaw, i.e . " the lion." The kings soon became dependants of the Parthians; their names are mostly Arabic (Bekr,
See also:Abgar, Ma'nu), but among them occur some Iranian (Parthian) names, as
See also:Pacorus and Phratamaspates . Under
See also:Tigranes of Armenia they became his vassals, and after the victories of
See also:Lucullus and
See also:Pompey, vassals of the Romans . Their names occur in all
See also:wars between Romans and Parthians, when they generally inclined to the Parthian side, e.g. in the wars of Crassus and Trajan . Trajan deposed the dynasty, but
See also:Hadrian restored it . The kings generally used Greek inscriptions on their coins, but when they sided with the Parthians, as in the war of
See also:Marcus Aurelius and Verna (A.D . 161–165), an Aramaic
See also:legend appears instead .
See also:Hellenism soon disappeared and the
See also:Arabs adopted the language and
See also:civilization of the Aramaeans . This development was hastened by the introduction of
See also:Christianity, which is said to have been brought here by the apostle Judas, the
See also:brother of
See also:James, whose
See also:tomb was shown in Edessa .
In 190 and 201 we hear ofChristian churches in Edessa .
See also:King Abgar IX . (or VIII.) (i79–214) himself became a Christian and abolished the
See also:pagan cults, especially the rite of castration in the service of
See also:Atargatis, which was now punished by the loss of the hands (see Bardesanes, "
See also:Book of the
See also:Laws of Countries," in
See also:Cureton, Spicilegium Syriacum, p . 31) . His conversion has by the legend been transferred to his ancestor Abgar V. in the
See also:time of Christ himself, with whom he is said to have exchanged letters and who sent him his miraculous image, which afterwards was fixed over the
See also:gate of the city (see ABGAR; Lipsius, Die edessenische Abgarsage (188o); Dobschiitz, Christusbilder (1896) ) . Edessa now became the principal seat of Aramaic-Christian (
See also:Syriac) language and literature; the
See also:literary dialect of Syriac is the dialect of Edessa . Caracalla in 216 abolished the
See also:kingdom of Osroene (Dio
See also:Cass . 77, 12 . 14) and Edessa became a
See also:Roman colony . The
See also:list of the kings of Osroene is preserved in the Syrian chronicle of Dionysius of Tellmahre, which is checked by the coins and the data of the Greek and Roman authors; it has been reconstructed by A. v . Gutschmid, " Untersuchungen uber die Geschichte
See also:des Konigreichs Osroene," in Memoires de l'Acad. de St Petersbourg, t.
See also:xxxv . (1887) .
Edessa remained Roman till it was taken by Chosroes II. in 6o8; but in 625
See also:Heraclius conquered it again . In 638 it was taken by the Arabs . (ED .
OSPREY, or OSPRAY
OSROES (also OSDROES or CHOSROES)
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