See also:basin of the Ob in western
See also:Siberia belonging to the Finno-Ugric
See also:group and related to the Voguls . The so-called Ostyaks of the
See also:Yenisei speak an entirely different language . The best investigators (Castren, Lerberg, A . Schrenck) consider the trans-Uralian
See also:Ostiaks and
See also:Samoyedes as identical with the Yugra of the
See also:annals . During the Russian
See also:conquest their abodes extended much farther south than now,
See also:forty-one of their fortified places having been destroyed by the 'Cossacks in 1501, in the region of Obdorsk alone . Remains of these " towns " are still to be seen at the Kunovat
See also:river, on the Ob 20 M. below Obdorsk and elsewhere . The
See also:total number of the Ostiaks may be estimated at 27,000 . Those on the Irtysh are mostly settled, and have adopted the manner of
See also:life of Russians and Tatars . Those on the Ob are mostly nomads; along with 8000 Samoyedes in the districts of
See also:Berezov and Surgut, they own large herds of
See also:reindeer . The Ob Ostiaks are russified to a
See also:great extent . They live almost exclusively by fishing, buying from Russian merchants corn for
See also:bread, the use of which has become widely diffused . The Ostiaks
See also:call themselves As-yakh (
See also:people of the Oh), and it is supposed that their
See also:present designation is a corruption of this name .
By language they belong (Castren, Reiseberichte, Reisebriefe; Ahlgvist, Ofvers. of Finska
See also:Soc . Forh. xxi.) to the Ugrian branch of the eastern Finnish
See also:stem . All the Ostiaks speak the same language, mixed to some extent with
See also:foreign elements; but three or four leading dialects can be distinguished . The Ostiaks are
See also:middle-sized, or of low stature, mostly meagre, and not
See also:ill made, however clumsy their appearance in winter in their thick fur-clothes . The extremities are
See also:fine, and the feet are usually small . The
See also:skull is brachycephalic, mostly of moderate
See also:size and height . The hair is dark and soft for the most
See also:fair and reddish individuals being rare; the eyes are dark, generally narrow; the
See also:nose is
See also:flat and broad; the mouth is large and with thick lips; the
See also:beard is scanty . The Mongolian type is more strongly pronounced in the
See also:women than in the men . On the whole, the Ostiaks are not a pure
See also:race; the purest type is found among the fishers on the Ob, the reindeer-breeders of the tundra being largely intermixed with Samoyedes . Investigators describe them as kind, gentle and honest; rioting is almost unknown among them, as also
See also:theft, this last occurring only in the vicinity of Russian settlements, and the only
See also:penalty enforced being the restitution twofold of the
See also:property stolen . They are very skilful in the arts they practice, especially in
See also:wood and
See also:bone, tanning (with
See also:egg-yolk and brains), preparation of implements from birch-bark, &c . Some of their carved or decorated bark implements (like those figured in Middendorff's Sibirische Reise, iv .
2) show considerable
See also:artistic skill . Their folk- lore, like that of other Finnish stems, is imbued with a feeling of natural
See also:poetry, and reflects also the sadness, or even the despair, which has been noticed among them .
See also:Christianity has made some progress among them and St
See also:Nicholas is a popular
See also:saint, but their
See also:pagan observances are still retained . For the language see Ahlqyist, Ober die Sprache der
See also:Nord-Ostyaken (188o) and for customs, religion, &c., the Journal de la Societe Finno-Ougrienne, particularly papers by Sirelius and Karjalainen, and the papers by Munkacsi, Gennep, Fuchs and others in the Revue orientale pour
See also:les etudes Ouralo-Altaiques; Patkanov, Die Irtysch-Ostiaken and ihre Volkspoesie (
See also:Petersburg, 190o); Patkanov, Irtirsch-Ostjaken and ihre Volkspoesie (1897–1900) ; Papay, Sammlung ostjakischer Volksdichtungen (1906) .
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