Online Encyclopedia


Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V20, Page 424 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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OXYHYDROGEN FLAME, the flame attending the combustion of hydrogen and oxygen, and characterized by a very high temperature. Hydrogen gas readily burns in oxygen or air with the formation of water. The quantity of heat evolved, according to Julius Thomsen, is 34,116 calories for each gram of hydrogen burned. This heat-disturbance is quite independent of the mode in which the process is conducted; but the temperature of the flame is dependent on the circumstances under which the process takes place. It obviously attains its maximum in the case of the firing of pure "oxyhydrogen " gas (a mixture of hydrogen with exactly half its volume of oxygen, the quantity it combines with in becoming water, German Knell-gas). It becomes less when the " oxyhydrogen " is mixed with excess of one or the other of the two reacting gases, or an inert gas such as nitrogen, because in any such case the same amount of heat spreads over a larger quantity of matter. Many forms of oxyhydrogen lamps have been invented, but the explosive nature of the gaseous mixture rendered them all more or less in-chief of the second Japanese army corps, which, landing on the Liaotung . Peninsula, carried Port Arthur by storm, and, subsequently crossing to Shantung, captured the fortress of Wei-hai-wei. For these services he received the title of marquess, and, three years later, he became field-marshal. When (1904) his country became embroiled in war with Russia, he was appointed commander-in-chief of the Japanese armies in Manchuria, and in the sequel of Japan's victory the mikado bestowed on him (1907) the rank of prince. He received the British Order of Merit in 1906.
OXYGEN (symbol 0, atomic weight 16)

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