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PADUCAH

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Originally appearing in Volume V20, Page 446 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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PADUCAH, a city and the county-seat of McCracken county, Kentucky, U.S.A., at the confluence of the Tennessee river with the Ohio, about 12 M. below the mouth of the Cumberland, and about 50 M. E. by N. of Cairo, Illinois. Pop. (1890), '12,799; (1900), 19,446, of whom 5814 were negroes and 516 were foreign-born; (1910 census) 22,760. It is served by three branches of the Illinois Central railroad by a branch of the Nashville Chattanooga & St Louis railway (of which it is the terminus), and by steamboat lines to Pittsburg, Louisville, St Louis, New Orleans, Nashville, Chattanooga, and other river ports. Paducah is in a rich agricultural region, and its wholesale trade is probably greater than that of any other city of the state except Louisville. Its trade is largely in groceries, whisky, tobacco, hardware, grain and live stock, vegetables and lumber. It is a large loose-leaf tobacco market, and is a headquarters for tow boats carrying coal down the Mississippi. The Illinois Central and the Nashville, Chattanooga & St Louis railways have repair shops here; and there are numerous manufactures, the value of the factory products increasing from $2,976,931 111 1900 to $4,443,223 in 1905, or 49.3%. Paducah (said to have been named in honour of an Indian chief who lived in the vicinity and of whom there is a statue in the city) was settled in 1821, was laid out in 1827, was incorporated as a town in 183o, and was chartered as a city in 1856. The city was occupied by General U. S. Grant the 5th of September 1861; on the 25th of March 1864 it was entered by a Confederate force under General Nathan B. Forrest, who, however, was unable to capture the fortifications and immediately withdrew. - PAEAN (Gr. Hatay, epic Ration)), in Homer (a v. 401, 899), the physician of the gods. In other writers the word is a mere epithet of Apollo (q.v.) in his capacity as a god of healing (cf. larpb,aavres oaten), but it is not known whether Paean was originally a separate deity or merely an aspect of Apollo. Homer leaves the question unanswered; Hesiod (cf. schol. Horn. Od. iv. 432) definitely separates the two, and in later poetry Paean is invoked independently as a health god. It is equally difficult to discover the relation between Paean or Paeon in the sense of " healer " and Paean in the sense of " song." Farnell refers to the ancient association between the healing craft and the singing of spells, and says that it is impossible to decide which is the original sense. At all events the meaning of "healer" gradually gave place to that of " hymn, from the phrase 'Ill Hatay. Such songs were originally addressed to Apollo (cf. the Homeric Hymn to Apollo 272, and notes in ed. by Sikes and Allen), a.nd afterwards to other gods, Dionysus, Helios, Asclepius. About the 4th century the paean became merely a formula of adulation; its object was either to implore protection against disease and misfortune, or to offer thanks after such protection had been rendered. Its connexion with Apollo as the slayer of the python led to its association with battle and victory; hence it became the custom for a paean to be sung by an army on the march and before entering into battle, when a fleet left the harbour, and also after a victory had been won. The most famous paeans are those of Bacchylides (q.v.) and Pindar (q.v.). Paeans were sung at the festivals of Apollo (especially the Hyacinthia), at banquets, and later even at public funerals. In later times they were addressed not only to the gods, but to human beings. In this manner the Rhodians celebrated Ptolemy I. of Egypt, the Samians Lysander of Sparta, the Athenians Demetrius, the Delphians Craterus of Macedon. The word " paean " is now used in the sense of any song of joy or triumph. See A. Fairbanks, A Study of the Greek Paean," No. xii. of Cornell Studies in Classical Philology (New York, 1900) ; L. R. Farnell, Cults of the Greek States.
End of Article: PADUCAH
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