JOSE DE PALAFOX Y MELZI (1780-1847) ,duke of Saragossa, was the youngest son of an old Aragonese
See also:family . Brought up at the
See also:court, he entered the
See also:guards at an early age, and in 1808 as a sub-
See also:lieutenant accompanied
See also:Ferdinand to
See also:Bayonne; but after vainly attempting, in
See also:company with others, to secure Ferdinand's
See also:escape, he fled to Spain, and after a
See also:period of retirement placed himself at the
See also:head of the patriot
See also:movement .in
See also:Aragon . He was proclaimed by the populace
See also:governor of Saragossa and captain-general of Aragon (May 25, 1808) . Despite the want of
See also:money and of
See also:regular troops, he lost no
See also:time in declaring war against the French, who had already overrun the neighbouring provinces of
See also:Catalonia and
See also:Navarre, and soon afterwards the attack he had provoked began . Saragossa as a fortress was both antiquated in design and scantily provided with munitions and supplies, and the defences resisted but a short time . But it was at that point that the real resistance began . A week's street fighting made the assailants masters of
See also:half the
See also:town, but Palafox's
See also:brother succeeded in forcing a passage into the city with 3000 troops . Stimulated by the appeals of Palafox and of the fierce and resolute demagogues who ruled the
See also:mob, the inhabitants resolved to contest possession of the remaining quarters of Saragossa inch by inch, and if necessary to retire to the suburb across the
See also:Ebro, destroying the
See also:bridge . The struggle, which was prolonged for nine days longer, resulted in the withdrawal of the French (Aug . 14), after a
See also:siege which had lasted 61 days in all . Palafox then attempted a short
See also:campaign in the open
See also:country, but when
See also:Napoleon's own army entered Spain, and destroyed one hostile army after another in a few
See also:weeks, Palafox was forced back into Saragossa, where he sustained a still more memorable second siege . This ended, after three months, in the fall of the town, or rather the cessation of resistance, for the town was in ruins and a pestilence had swept away many thousands of the defenders .
Palafox himself, suffering from the epidemic,fell into the hands of the French and was keptprisoner at
See also:Vincennes until
See also:December 1813 . In
See also:June 1814 he was confirmed in the
See also:office of captain-general of Aragon, but soon afterwards withdrew from it, and ceased to take
See also:part in public affairs . From 1820 to 1823 he commanded the royal guard of
See also:King Ferdinand, but, taking the side of the Constitution in the
See also:civil troubles which followed, he was stripped of all his honours and offices by the king, whose restoration by French bayonets was the
See also:triumph of reaction and
See also:absolutism . Palafox remained in retirement for many years . He received the title of duke of Saragossa from
See also:Queen Maria Christine . From 1836 he took part in military and
See also:political affairs as captain-general of Aragon and a senator . He died at
See also:Madrid on the 15th of
See also:February 1847 . A
See also:notice of Palafox appeared in the Spanish
See also:translation of
See also:Thiers's Hist.
See also:des consulates de l'
See also:empire, by P. de Madrago . For the two sieges of Saragossa, see C . W . C .
See also:Peninsular War, vol. i.; this account is both more accurate and more just than
See also:Napier's .
JUAN DE PALAFOX DE MENDOZA (1600-1659)
GREGORIUS PALAMAS (a. 1296-1359)
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