See also:PALL (derived, so far as the name is concerned, from the
See also:Roman pallium or
See also:palla, a woollen cloak), an ecclesiastical vestment in the Roman Catholic
See also:Church, originally
See also:peculiar to the
See also:pope, but for many centuries past bestowed by him on all metropolitans, primates and archbishops as a
See also:symbol of the jurisdiction delegated to them by the
See also:Holy See . The pallium, in its
See also:form, is a narrow
See also:band, " three fingers broad,"
See also:woven of
See also:white lamb's wool, with a
See also:loop in the centre resting on the shoulders over the chr uble, and two dependent lappets, before and behind; so that when seen from front or back the
See also:ornament resembles the
See also:letter Y . It is decorated with six
See also:purple crosses, one on each tail and four on the loop, is doubled on the
See also:shoulder, and is garnished, back and front, with three jewelled gold pins . The two latter characteristics seem to be survivals of the
See also:time when the Roman pallium, like the Greek c yoca6ptov was a
See also:scarf doubled and pinned on the left shoulder . The origin of the pallium as an ecclesiastical vestment is lost in antiquity . The theory that explains it in connexion with the figure of the
See also:Good Shepherd carrying the lamb on his shoulders, so
See also:common in early Christian
See also:art, is obviously an explanation a posteriori . The ceremonial connected with the preparation of the pallium and its bestowal upon the pope at his
See also:coronation, however, suggests some such symbolism . The
See also:lambs whose wool is destined for the making of the pallia are solemnly presented at the
See also:altar by the nuns of the convent of St
See also:Agnes at Rome at mass on St Agnes'
See also:day, during the singing of the Agnes Dei . They are received by the canons of the Lateran church and handed over by them to the apostolic subdeacons, by whom they are put out to pasture till the time of shearing . The pallia fashioned of their wool by the nuns are carried by the subdeacons to St
See also:Peter's, where they are placed by the canons on the bodies of St Peter and St Paul, under the high altar, for a
See also:night, then committed to the subdeacons for safe custody . A pallium thus consecrated is placed by the archdeacon over the shoulders of the pope at his coronation, with the words " Receive the pallium," i.e. the plenitude of the pontifical
See also:office, " to the
See also:glory of
See also:God, and of the most glorious Virgin His
See also:Mother, and of the blessed apostles St Peter and St Paul, and of the Holy Roman Church." (
See also:Drawn by
See also:Father J . Braun, and reproduced from his Die liturgische Gewandung by permission of B .
See also:Illustration of the Development of the Pallium . The elaborate ceremonial might suggest an effort to symbolize the command " Feed My lambs!" given to St Peter, and its transference to Peter's successors . Some such idea underlies the
See also:developed ceremonial; but the pallium itself was in its origin no more than an ensign of the episcopal dignity, as it remains in the East, where—under the name of d, o¢opwov (c os, shoulder, 4fpew, to carry)—it is worn by all bishops . More-over, whatever symbolism may be evolved from the lambs' wool is vitiated, so far as origins are concerned, by the fact that the papal pallia were at one time made of white
See also:linen (see Johannes Diaconus, Vita S . Gregorii M.
See also:lib . IV. cap . 8, pallium ejus bysso candente contextum).' The right to
See also:wear the pallium seems, in the first instance, to have been conceded by the popes merely as a mark of
See also:honour . The first recorded example of the bestowal of the pallium by the popes is the
See also:grant of Pope
See also:Symmachus in 513 to Caesarius of Arles, as papal
See also:vicar . By the time of
See also:Gregory I. it was given not only to vicars but as a mark of honour to distinguish bishops, and it is still conferred on the bishops of
See also:Bamberg, Doi, Lucca,
See also:Pavia and Verona . St Boniface caused a reforming synod, between 84o and 85o, to decree that in future all metropolitans must seek their pallium at Rome (see Boniface's letter to
See also:Cuthbert, 78, Monumenta Germaniae, epistolae, III.); and though this
See also:rule was not universally followed even until the 13th century, it is now uncanonical for an arch-
See also:bishop to exercise the functions proper to his office until the pallium has been received . Every archbishop must apply for it, personally or by depu , within three months after his consecration. and it is buriewith him at his
See also:death (see ARCHBISHOP) . The pallium is never granted until after payment of consider-able dues .
This payment, originally supposed to be voluntary, became one of the
See also:great abuses of the papacy, especially during the
See also:period of the
See also:Renaissance, and it was the large amount (raised largely by indulgences) which was paid by
See also:Albert, arch-bishop of
See also:Mainz, to the papacy that roused
See also:Luther to protest . Though the pallium is thus a vestment distinctive of bishops having metropolitan jurisdiction, it may only be worn by them within their jurisdiction, and then only on certain
See also:solemn occasions . The pope alone has the right to wear everywhere and at all times a vestment which is held to symbolize the plenitude of ecclesiastical power . See P .
See also:Hinschius, Kirchenrecht, II . 23 sqq.; Gresar, " Das romische Pallium and die altesten liturgischen Scharpen " (in Festschrift zum elf hundertjahrigen Jubildum
See also:des campo santo in Rom,
See also:Freiburg, 1897); Du Cange, Glossarium s.v . " Pallium ";
See also:Joseph Braun, Die liturgische Gewandung
See also:im Occident and Orient (Freiburg-i-B., 1907) . _ PALL-MALL, an obsolete
See also:game of French origin, called in France paille-maille (from palla,
See also:ball, and malleus, mallet) .
See also:Sir Robert Dallington, in his Method for Travel (1598), says: " Among all the exercises of France, I prefer none before the Paille-Maille."
See also:James I., in his Basilikon doron, recommended it as a proper game for
See also:Henry, and it was actually introduced into England in the reign of
See also:Charles I., or perhaps a few years earlier .
See also:Blount's Glossographia (ed . 167o) describes it as follows: "
See also:Pale Maille, a game wherein a
See also:round bowle is with a mallet struck through a high arch of iron (
See also:standing at either end of an
See also:alley), which he that can do at the fewest blows, or at the number agreed on, wins . This game was hereto-fore used in the long-alley near St James's, and vulgarly called
See also:Pell-Mell." The pronunciation here described as " vulgar " afterwards became classic .
A mallet and balls used in the game were found in 1845 and are now in the
See also:British Museum . The mallet resembles that used in croquet, but its
See also:head is curved and its ends sloped towards the
See also:shaft . The balls are of
See also:boxwood and about one
See also:foot in circumference .
See also:Pepys describes the alley as of hard sand " dressed with powdered cockle-shells." The length of the alley varied, that at St James's being about 800 yds . Some alleys had side walls . ' Father Joseph Braun, S.J., holds that the pallium, unlike other
See also:vestments, had a liturgical origin, and that it was akin to the scarves of office worn by priests and priestesses in
See also:rites . See Die pontifacalen Gewdnder des Abendlandes, p . 174 (Freiburg-i-B . 1898) .
FERRANTE PALLAVICINO (1618-1644)
PALLONE (Italian for " large ball," from palla, bal...
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