PALMYRA , theGreek and Latin name of a famous city of the East, now a mere collection of Arab hovels, but still an
See also:object of
See also:interest on account of its wonderful ruins . In 2 Chron . $ For curious instances of the
See also:part played by the ass in
See also:church festivals see the article Foons, FEAST OF . viii . 4, and in the native inscriptions, it is called Tadmor, and this is the name by which it is known among the
See also:Arabs at the
See also:day (Tadmur, Tudmur).' The site of Palmyra lies 150 M . N.E. of
See also:Damascus and five days' camel
See also:journey from the
See also:Euphrates, in an
See also:oasis of the Syrian
See also:desert, 1,300 ft. above
See also:sea-level . At this point the
See also:trade routes met in
See also:ancient times, the one
See also:crossing from the Phoenician ports to the Persian Gulf, the other coming up from
See also:Petra and south
See also:Arabia . The earliest mention of Palmyra is in 2 Chron. viii . 4, where Solomon is said to have built " Tadmor in the
See also:wilderness "; r
See also:Kings ix . 18, however, from which the Chronicler derived his statement, reads " Tamar " in the
See also:Hebrew text, with " Tadmor " in the Hebrew margin; there can be no doubt that the text is right and refers to Tamar in the
See also:land of
See also:Judah (Ezek. xlvii . 19; xlviii . 28) .
The Chronicler, we must suppose, altered the name because Tadmor was a city more
See also:familiar and renowned in his day, or possibly because he wished to increase the extent of Solomon's
See also:kingdom . The date of the Chronicler may be placed about 300 B.C., so Palmyra must have been in existence Iong before then . There is reason to believe that before the 6th century B.C. the caravans reached Damascus without coming near the oasis of Tadmor; probably, therefore, we may connect the origin of the city with the gradual forward
See also:movement of the nomad Arabs which followed on the overthrow of the ancient nationalities of
See also:Syria by the Babylonian
See also:Empire (6th century B.C.) . The Arabian tribes began to take possession of the partly cultivated lands east of
See also:Canaan, became masters of the Eastern trade, gradually acquired settled habits, and learned to speak and write in Aramaic, the language which was most widely current throughout the region west of the Euphrates in the
See also:time of the Persian Empire (6th–4th century B.e.) . It is not till much later that Palmyra first appears in Western literature . We learn from
See also:Appian (
See also:Bell. civ. v . 9) that in 42–41 B.C. the city was
See also:rich enough to excite the cupidity of M .
See also:Antonius (Mark Antony), while the population was not too large to save itself by timely
See also:flight . The series of native inscriptions, written in Aramaic, begins a few years after; the earliest bears the date 304 of the Seleucid era, i.e . 9 B.C . (Cooke,
See also:North-Semitic Inscriptions No . 141 = Vogue, Syrie Centrale No .
3oa); by this time Palmyra had become an important trade-
See also:post between the
See also:Roman and the
See also:Parthian states . Its characteristic
See also:grew out of a mixture of various elements, Arabic, Aramaic, Greek and Roman . The bulk of the population was of Arab
See also:race, and though Aramaic was used as the written language, in
See also:common intercourse Arabic had by no means disappeared . The proper names and the names of deities, while partly Aramaic, are also in part unmistakably Arabic: it is suggestive that a purely Arabic
See also:term (fand,
See also:NSI . No . 136) was used for the septs into which the citizens were divided . Originally an Arab settlement, the oasis was transformed in the course of time from a mere halting-place for caravans to a city of the first
See also:rank . The true Arab despises
See also:agriculture; but the pursuit of commerce, the organization and conduct of trading caravans, cannot be carried on without widespread connexions of
See also:blood and hospitality between the
See also:merchant and the leading sheiks on the route . An Arabian merchant city is thus necessarily aristocratic, and its chiefs can hardly be other than pure Arabs of
See also:good blood . Palmyra also possessed the character of a religious centre, with the worship of the
See also:god dominating that of inferior deities . The chief luxuries of the ancient
See also:world, silks, jewels, pearls, perfumes,
See also:incense and the like, were
See also:drawn from India,
See also:China and
See also:southern Arabia . Pliny (N .
H. xii . 41) reckons the yearly import of these wares intoRome at not less than three-quarters of a million of
See also:money . The trade followed two routes: 1 How the name Palmyra arose is obscure . The Greek for a palm is ¢oivi . , and the Greek ending -yea could not have been affixed to the Latin Palma .
See also:Schultens (Vita Sal.,
See also:Index geogr.) cites Tatmur as a variant of the Arabic name; this might mean"abounding in palms " (from the
See also:root Lamar) ; otherwise Tadmor may have been originally an
See also:Assyrian name . See
See also:Lagarde, Bildung der Nomina, p . 125 n.one by the Red Sea,
See also:Egypt and Alexandria, the other from the Persian Gulf through the Syro-Arabian desert . The latter, when the Nabataean kingdom of Petra (q.v.) came to an end (A.D . 105), passed into the hands of the Palmyrene merchants . Their caravans (ovvoblat) travelled right across the desert to the great entrep6ts on the Euphrates, Vologesias, about 55 M. south-east of
See also:Babylon, or Forath or Charax close to the Persian Gulf (NSI . Nos .
113–115) . The trade was enormously profitable, not only to the merchants but to the
See also:town, which levied a rigorous
See also:duty on all exports and imports; at the same time formidable risks had to be faced both from the desert-tribes and from the Parthians, and successfully to plan or
See also:convoy a great
See also:caravan came to be looked upon as a distinguished service to the state, often recognized by public monuments erected by " council and
See also:people " or by the merchants interested in the venture . These monuments, a conspicuous feature of Palmyrene architecture, took the
See also:form of statues placed on brackets projecting from the upper part of the pillars which lined the
See also:principal thoroughfares . Thus arose, beside minor streets, the imposing central avenue which, starting from a triumphal arch near the great
See also:temple of the Sun, formed the
See also:axis of the city from south-east to north-west for a length of 1240 yards, and at one time consisted of not less than 750 columns of rosy-
See also:limestone, each 55 ft. high .
See also:industries do not seem to have been important . One of the chief of them was the production of
See also:salt from the deposits of the desert; 2 another was no doubt the manufacture of
See also:leather; the inscriptions mention also a powerful gild of workers in gold and
See also:silver (NSI . No . 126); but Palmyra was not an
See also:industrial town, and the exacting fiscal
See also:system which drew profit even out of the
See also:bare necessaries of life—such as
See also:water, oil, wheat, salt,
See also:straw, wool, skins (see
See also:Tariff ii. b, NSI. pp . 315 sqq.)—must have weighed heavily upon the
See also:artisan class . The prominent townsmen were engaged in the organization and even the
See also:personal conduct of caravans, the
See also:discharge of public offices such as those of strategos, secretary,
See also:guardian of the
See also:president of the banquets of
See also:Bel, chief of the market (see NSI . Nos . 114, 115, 121, 122), sometimes the victualling of a Roman expedition .
The capable performance of these functions, which often involved considerable pecuniary sacrifices, ensured public esteem, honorary inscriptions and statues; and to these honours the
See also:head of a great
See also:house was careful to add the
See also:glory of a splendid
See also:tomb, consecrated as the " long home " (lit . " house of eternity," cf .
See also:Eccles. xii . 5) of himself, his sons and his sons' sons for ever . These tombs, which lie outside the city and overlook it from the surrounding hills, a feature characteristically Arabic, remain the most interesting monuments of Palmyra . Some are lofty towers containing sepulchral
See also:chambers in stories; 3 others are house-like buildings with a single chamber and a richly ornamented portico; the sides of these chambers within are adorned with the names and sculptured portraits of the dead . As a
See also:rule the buildings of Palmyra do not possess any architectural individuality, but these tombs are an exception . The
See also:style of all the ruins is
See also:late classic and highly ornate, but without refinement . The rise of Palmyra to a position of
See also:political importance may be dated from the time when the Romans established themselves on the Syrian
See also:coast . As early as the first imperial
See also:period the city must have admitted the
See also:suzerainty of Rome, for decrees respecting its
See also:custom-dues were issued by Germanicus (A.D . 17–19) and Cn . Domitius Corbulo (A.D .
57–66) . At the same time the city had by no means surrendered itsindependence, for even in the days of
See also:Vespasian (A.D . 69–79) the distinctive 2 " The
See also:soil of this
See also:marsh [east of Palmyra] is so impregnated with salt that a
See also:trench or
See also:pit sunk in it becomes filled in a
See also:short time with concentrated brine, the water of which evaporates in the intense
See also:sunshine and leaves an incrustation of excellent salt." Post, Narrative of a Second Journey to Palmyra in
See also:Pal . Expl . Fund's Qtly . St . (1892), p . 324 . 2 One of these tomb-towers, called Kasr eth-Thuniyeh, is 111 ft. high, 332 ft. square at the
See also:base, 25 ft . 8 in. square above the
See also:basement; it contains six stories and places for 48o bodies . Opposite the entrance within is a
See also:hall with recesses for coffins and a richly panelled
See also:ceiling; underneath is an immense vault . position of Palmyra as an intermediate state between the two great
See also:powers of Rome and
See also:Parthia was recognized and carefully watched .
The splendid period of Palmyra (A.D . 130-270), to which the greater part of the inscribed monuments belong, started from the overthrow of Petra (A.D . 105), which
See also:left Palmyra without a competitor for the Eastern trade .
See also:Hadrian treated the city with
See also:special favour, and on the occasion of his visit in A.C . 130, granted it the name of Hadriana Palmyra (men H1--n NSI. p . 322) . Under the same emperor the customs were revised and a new tariff promulgated (
See also:April, A.D . 137), cancelling the loose system of
See also:taxation " by custom " which formerly had prevailed.' The great fiscal inscription, which still remains where it was set up, gives the fullest picture of the
See also:life and commerce of the city . The
See also:government was vested in the council ((3ov).i7) and people (Sij,uor), and administered by
See also:officers with Greek titles, the proedros (president), the grammateus (secretary), the archons, syndics and dekaproloi (a fiscal council of ten), following the
See also:model of a Greek
See also:municipality under the Roman Empire . At a later date, probably under Septimius Severus or Caracalla (beginning of 3rd century), Palmyra received the
See also:Jus italicum and the status of a colony; the executive officials of the council and people were called strategoi,
See also:equivalent to the Roman duumviri (NSI . Nos . 121, 127); and Palmyrenes who became Roman citizens began to take Roman names, usually Septimius or
See also:Julius Aurelius, in addition to their native names .
It was the Parthian
See also:wars of the 3rd century which brought Palmyra to the front, and for a brief period raised her to an almost dazzling position as
See also:mistress of the Roman East . A new career of ambition was opened to her citizens in the Roman honours that rewarded services to the imperial armies during their frequent expeditions in the East . One house which was thus distinguished had risen to a leading place in the city and before long played no small part in the world's
See also:history . Its members, as we learn from the inscriptions, prefixed to their Semitic names the Roman gentilicium of Septimius, which shows that they received the citizenship under Septimius Severus (A.D . 193-211), presumably in recognition of their services in connexion with his Parthian expedition . In the next generation Septimius Odainath or Odenathus, son of Hairan, had attained the rank of Roman senator (alyK)^nTLKOS, Vogue No . 21, NSI. p . 285 n.). conferred no doubt when
See also:Alexander Severus visited Palmyra in A.D . 230-231; his son again, Septimius Hairan, seems to have been the first of the
See also:family to receive the title of
See also:Ras Tadmor (" chief of Tadmor ") in addition to his Roman rank (NSI . No . 125); while his son—the relationship, though nowhere stated, is practically certain—the famous Septimius Odainath, commonly known as Odenathus (q.v.), the
See also:husband of
See also:Zenobia, received even higher rank, the consular dignity (inranKOs) which is given him in an inscription dated A.D . 258, in the reign of
See also:Valerian (NSI .
No . 126) . The East was then agitated by the advance of the Parthian Empire under the Sassanidae, and the Palmyrenes, in spite of their Roman honours and their Roman civilization, which did not really go much below the
See also:surface, were by no means prepared to commit them-selves altogether to the Roman side.2 But Parthian ambitions made it necessary for the Palmyrenes to choose one side or other, and their choice leaned towards Rome, both because they dreaded interference with their religious freedom and because the Roman emperor was further off than the Persian
See also:king . In the contests which followed there can be no doubt that the Palmyrene princes cherished the idea of an
See also:independent empire of their own, though they never threw over their
See also:allegiance to the Roman suzerain until the closing
See also:act of the drama . Their opportunity came with the disaster which befell the Roman army under Valerian (q.v.) at Edessa, a disaster, says ' The full text, both Greek and Palmyrene, with an English
See also:translation, is given in NSI, pp . 323-340 . The tariff should be compared with the Greek Tariff of
See also:Coptos A.D 90 (
See also:Flinders Petrie, Koptos, pp . 27 sqq.) and the Latin Tariff of Zarai (Corp. inscr.
See also:lat. viii . 4508) . 2 For the general history of the Period see
See also:PERSIA: History, A . §. viii„ " The
See also:Sassanian Empire."
See also:Mommsen, which had nearly the same significance for the Roman East as the victory of the Goths at the mouth of the
See also:Danube and the fall of Decius; the emperor was captured (A.D . 260) and died in captivity .
The Persians swept victoriously over
See also:Asia Minor and North Syria; not however without resistance on the part of Odenathus, who inflicted considerable losses on the bands returning home from the pillage of
See also:Antioch . It was prcbably not long after this that Odenathus, with a keen
See also:eye for his
See also:advantage, made an attempt to attach himself to Shapur I . (q.v.) the Persian king; 3 his gifts and letters, however, were contemptuously rejected, and from that time, as it seems, he threw himself warmly into the Roman cause . After the captivity and
See also:death of Valerian,
See also:Gallienus succeeded to a merely nominal rule in the East, and was too careless and self-indulgent to take any active
See also:measures to recover the lost provinces . Thereupon the two leading generals of the Roman army, Macrianus and Callistus, renounced their allegiance and
See also:pro-claimed the two sons of the former as emperors (A.D . 261) . During the crisis Odenathus remained loyal to Gallienus, and was rewarded for his fidelity by the
See also:grant of a position without parallel under ordinary circumstances; as hereditary
See also:prince of Palmyra he was appointed
See also:dux Orientis, a sort of
See also:vice-emperor for the East (A.D . 262) . He started promptly upon the
See also:work of recovery . With his Palmyrene troops,4 strengthened by what was left of the Roman army
See also:corps, he took the offensive against Shapur, defeated him at
See also:Ctesiphon, and in a series of brilliant engagements won back the East for Rome . During his
See also:absence at the wars, we learn from the inscriptions (A.D . 262-267) that Palmyra was administered by his
See also:deputy Septimius Worod, " procurator ducenarius of Caesar our
See also:lord," also styled " commandant," as being Odenathus'
See also:viceroy (apyair rns, NSI .
Nos . 127-129) . Then in the
See also:zenith of his success Odenathus was assassinated at Iioms (Emesa) along with his eldest son Herodes (A.D . 266-267) . The fortunes of Palmyra now passed into the vigorous hands of ZENOBIA (q.v.), who had been actively supporting her husband in his policy . Zenobia seems to have ruled on hehalf of her
See also:young son Wahab-allath or
See also:Athenodorus as the name is Graecized, who
See also:counts the years of his reign from the date of his
See also:father's death . Under Odenathus Palmyra htd extended her sway over Syria and Arabia, perhaps also over Armenia,
See also:Cilicia and
See also:Cappadocia; but now the troops of Zenobia, numbering it is said 70,000, proceeded to occupy Egypt; the Romans under Probus resisted vigorously but without avail, and by the beginning of A.D . 270, when Aurelian succeeded
See also:Claudius as emperor, Wahab-allath was governing Egypt with the title of " king." His coins of 270 struck at Alexandria bear the
See also:legend v(ir) c(onsularis) R(omanorum)
See also:im(perator) d(ux) R(omanorum) and display his head beside that of Aurelian, but the latter alone is styled
See also:Augustus . Meanwhile the Palmyrenes were pushing their influence not only in Egypt but in Asia Minor; they contrived to establish garrisons as far west as
See also:Ancyra and even Chalcedon opposite
See also:Byzantium, while still professing to act under the terms of the joint rule conferred by Gallienus . Then in the course of the
See also:year A.D . 270-271 came the inevitable and open
See also:breach . In Palmyra Zenobia is still called "
See also:queen" (/3ao-D wo•a, NSI .
No . 131; cf . Wadd . 2628), but in distant quarters, such as Egypt, she and her son claim the dignity of Augustus; 3 Petrus Patricius . Fragm. hist. graec. iv . 187 . ' The Palmyrene archers were especially famous . Appian mentions them in connexion with M . Antony's
See also:raid in 41 B.c . (Bell. civ. v . 9) . Later on a contingent served with the Roman army in Africa, Britain, Italy, Hungary, where
See also:grave-stones with Palmyrene and Latin inscriptions have been found; see Lidzbarski, Nordsem. epigr. p .
481 seq . ;
See also:Ephemeris, ii . 92 (a Latin inscription of the time of
See also:Marcus Aurelius), and NSI. p . 312 . The South
See also:Shields inscription, now in the
See also:Free Library of the town, was found in the neighbouring Roman
See also:camp; it is given in NSI. p . 25o . The Palmyrene soldier who set it up was no doubt an
See also:archer . Jewish tradition had reason to remember these formidable Palmyrenes in the Roman armies; according to the
See also:Talmud 80,000 of them assisted at the destruction of the first temple, 8000 at that of the second ! Taint . Jerus . Taanith, fol . 68 a,
See also:Midrash Ekha, ii .
2 . For other references to Palmyra (called Tarmod) in the Talmud see Neubauer Geogr. du Talm . 301 sqq . Wahab-allath(5th year)begins to issue coins at Alexandria without the head of Aurelian and bearing the imperial title; and Zenobia's coins bear the same . It was at this time (A.D . 271) that the two chief Palmyrene generals Zabda and Zabbai, set up a statue to the deceased Odenathus and gave him thesounding designation of " king of kings and restorer of the whole city " (NSI . No . 13o) . These assumptions marked a definite rejection of all allegiance to Rome . Aurelian, the true Augustus, quickly grasped the situation, and took strenuous measures to
See also:deal with it . At the close of A.D . 270 Probus brought back Egypt into the empire, not without a considerable struggle; then in 271 Aurelian made preparations for a great
See also:campaign against the seat of the
See also:mischief itself .
He approached by way of Cappadocia, where he reduced the Palmyrene garrisons, and thence through Cilicia he entered Syria . At Antioch the Palmyrene forces under Zabda attempted to resist his advances, but they were compelled to fall back upon the great route which leads from Antioch through Emesa (mod . IIomO to their native city . At Emesa the Palmyrenes were defeated in a stiffly contested
See also:battle . At length Aurelian arrived before the walls of Palmyra, which was captured probably in the
See also:spring of A.D . 272 . In accordance with the judicious policy which he had observed in Asia Minor and at Antioch, he granted full
See also:pardon to the citizens; only the chief officials and advisers were put to death; Zenobia and her son were captured and reserved for his
See also:triumph when he returned to Rome . But the final stage in the
See also:conquest of the city was yet to come . A few months later, in the autumn of 272—the latest inscription is dated
See also:August 272 (Vogue, No . 116) —the Palmyrenes revolted, killed the Roman garrison quartered in the city, and proclaimed one
See also:Antiochus as their chief . Aurelian heard of it just when he had crossed the
See also:Hellespont on his way home . He returned instantly before any one expected him, and took the city by surprise .
Palmyra was destroyed and the population put to thesword . Aurelian restored the walls and the great Temple of the Sun (A.D . 273); but the city never recovered its splendour or importance . Language.—The language spoken at Palmyra was a dialect of western Aramaic, and belongs to the same
See also:group as Nabataean and the Aramaic spoken in Egypt . In some important points, however, the dialect was related to the eastern Aramaic or Syrian (e.g. the plur. ending in e'; the dropping of the final i of the pronominal suffix third pers. sing. with .nouns, and of the final u of the third pers. pl. of the verb; the infin. ending u, &c) . But the relation to western Aramaic is closer; specially characteristic are the following features: the imperf. beginning with y, not as in
See also:Syriac and the eastern dialects with n or l; the plur. ending -ayya'; the forms of the
See also:demonstrative pronouns, &c . As the bulk of the population was of Arab race, it is not surprising that many of the proper names are Arabic and that several Arabic words occur in the inscriptions . The technical terms of municipal government are mostly Greek, transliterated into Palmyrene; a few Latin words occur, of course in Aramaic forms . For further characteristics of the dialect see Noldeke, ZDMG.
See also:xxiv . 85-109 . The writing is a modified form of the old Aramaic character, and especially interesting because it represents almost the last stage through which the ancient
See also:alphabet passed before it
See also:developed into the Hebrew square character . The names of the months were the same as those used by the
See also:Nabataeans, Syrians and later Jews, viz. the Babylonian .
See also:calendar *as the Syro-Macedonian, a solar, as distinct from the
See also:primitive lunar, calendar, which Roman influence disseminated throughout Syria; it was practically a
See also:reproduction of the Julian calendar .
See also:Dates were reckoned by the Seleucid era, which began in
See also:October 312 B.C . Religion.—The religion of Palmyra did not differ in essentials from that of the north Syrians and the Arab tribes of the eastern desert . The chief god of the Palmyrenes was a solar deity, called Samas or
See also:Shamash (" sun "), or Bel, or Malak-bel,i whose great temple is still the most imposing feature among the ruins of Palmyra . Both Bel and Malak-bel were of Babylonian origin . Sometimes associated with the Sun-god was 'Agli-bol the
See also:Moon-god who is represented as a young Roman
See also:warrior with a large
See also:crescent attached to his shoulders (Rom . 1, and Vogue pl. xii . No . 141) . The great goddess of the Aramaeans, 'Athar-`atheh, in Greek
See also:Atargatis i Transcribed Mic1`ax/3i7aos, Malagbelus, &c., and in the Palm. inscr. given in NSI., p . 268, translated Sol sanctissimus; he was further identified with Zees . Malak-bel has been explained as " messenger of Bel "; but more probably Malak is the common Babylonian epithet malik given to various gods, and means " counsellor "; Malak-bel will then be the sun as the visible representative of Bel.(q.v.), and Allath, the chief goddess of the ancient Arabs, were also worshipped at Palmyra .
Another deity whose name occurs in votive inscriptions, is
See also:Baal-shamim, i.e . " B of the heavens," = Zevs si ycoros Kepabvcos, sometimes called " lord of eternity," but he was not included among the
See also:national gods of Palmyra, so far as we know, though he probably had a temple there . Another interesting divine name, lately discovered, is that of a distinctly Arabic deity " Sheaalqum the good and bountiful god who does not drink wine " (NSI . No . 140 B); the name means " he who accompanies, the
See also:protector of, the people "—the divine
See also:patron of the caravan . A common
See also:formula in Palmyrene dedications runs " To him whose name is blessed for ever, the good and the compassionate "; out of reverence the name of the deity was not pronounced; was it Bel or Malak-bel ? It is worth noticing that this epithet like lord of eternity " (or, " of the world "), has a distinctly Jewish character . Altogether about 22 names of gods are found in Palmyrene; some of them, however, only occur in compound proper names . After its overthrow by Aurelian, Palmyra was partially revived as a military station by
See also:Diocletian (end of 3rd century A.D.), as we learn from a Latin inscription found on the site . Before this time
See also:Christianity had made its way into the oasis, for among the fathers present at the Council of Nicaea (A.D . 325) was
See also:bishop of Palmyra . The names of two other bishops of the 5th and 6th centuries have come down to us .
About A.D . 400, Palmyra was the station of the first Illyrian
See also:legion (Not. dign. i . 85, ed . Bocking); Justinian in 527 furnished it with an aqueduct, and built the
See also:wall of which the ruins still remain (
See also:Procopius, De aedif, At the Moslem conquest of Syria, Palmyra capitulated to Khalid (see
See also:CALIPHATE) without embracing
See also:Islam (Baladsori [Baladhuri], III seq.; Yaqui:, i . 831) . The town became a Moslem fortress and received a considerable Arab colony; for in the reign of Merwan II . (A.H . 127—132) it sent a thousand Kalbite horsemen to aid the revolt of Emesa, to the
See also:district of which it is reckoned by the Arabic geographers . The
See also:rebellion was sternly suppressed and the walls of the city destroyed (
See also:Ibn al-Athir, A.H . 127, ed . Tornberg V., 249; cf . Frag. hist. ar .
139, Ibn Wadih, ii . 230) . In this connexion Yaqui tells a curious
See also:story of the opening of one of the tombs by the
See also:caliph, which in spite of fabulous incidents, recalling the legend of Roderic the Goth, shows some traces of local knowledge . The ruins of Palmyra greatly interested the Arabs, and are commemorated in several poems quoted by Yaqut and others; they are referred to by the early poet Nabigha as proofs of the might of Solomon and his
See also:sovereignty over their builders the
See also:Jinn (
See also:Derenbourg, Journ . As . 269)—a legend which must have come from the Jews, who either clung to the ruins after the great overthrow or returned in the time of Diocletian . References to Palmyra in later times have been collected by
See also:Quatremere, Sultans Mamlouks, ii. pt . 1. p . 255 seq . All but annihilated by
See also:earthquake in the iith century, it recovered considerable prosperity; when Benjamin of
See also:Tudela visited the city, which was still called Tadmor, he found 2000 Jews within the walls (12th century). it was still a wealthy place as late as the 14th century; but in the general decline of the East, and owing to changes in the trade routes, it sunk at length to a poor group of hovels gathered in the courtyard of the Temple of the Sun . The ruins first became known to
See also:Europe through the visit of Dr
See also:Halifax of
See also:Aleppo in 1691; his Relation of a voyage to Tadmor has been printed from his autograph in the Pal . Explor .
Fund's Quarterly Statement for 189o . Halifax not only took measurements, but copied 18 Greek and 4 Palmyrene texts . The architecture was carefully studied by
See also:Wood and
See also:Dawkins in 1751, whose splendid
See also:folio (The Ruins of Palmyra,
See also:London, 1953) also gave copies of inscriptions . But the epigraphic
See also:wealth of Palmyra was first opened to study by the collections of Waddington (vol. iii.) and De Vogue (La Syrie centrale) made in 1861-1862 . Since that time the most valuable document which has come to
See also:light is the great fiscal inscription discovered in 1882 by Prince Abamelek Lazarew . See also A . D . Mordtmann, Sitzungsb. of the
See also:Munich Acad.(1875); Sachau, ZDMG.
See also:xxxv . 728 sqq.; D . H .
See also:Muller, Palm . Inschr .
(1898); J . Mordtmann Palmyrenisches (1899) ; Clermont-Ganneau, Etudes d'aech. or . L, Receuil. d'arch. or. iii., v., vii.; Lidzbarski, Ephemeris, i. and ii.; Sobernheim, Palm . Inschr . (1905) . The Repertoire d'epigr. seas. contains the new texts which have been published since 1900 . For the coins von Sallet's Flies/en von Palmyra (1866) must be read with his later
See also:essay in the Num.' Zeitschr. ii . 31 sqq . (187o) . Critical discussions of the history will be found in Schiller, Gesch. d . Romischen Kaiserzeit., i . 2 Tail (1883), pp .
823 sqq• and 857 sqq., and Mommsen, Provinces of the Roman Empire, (Eng. trans., 1886), pp . 92 sqq . (G . A .
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