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PANAETIUS (c. 185-18o to I10-108 B.C.)

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Originally appearing in Volume V20, Page 664 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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PANAETIUS (c. 185-18o to I10-108 B.C.), Greek Stoic philosopher, belonged to a Rhodian family, but was probably educated partly in Pergamum under Crates of Mallus and after-wards in Athens, where he attended the lectures of Diogenes the Babylonian, Critolaus and Carneades. He subsequently went to Rome, where he became the friend of Laelius and of Scipio the Younger. He lived as a guest in the house of the latter, and accompanied him on his mission to Egypt and Asia (143 or 141). He returned with Scipio to Rome, where he did much to intro-duce Stoic doctrines and Greek philosophy. He had a number of distinguished Romans as pupils, amongst them Q. Mucius Scaevola the augur and Q. Aelius Tubero. After the murder of Scipio in 129, he resided by turns in Athens and Rome, but chiefly in Athens, where he succeeded Antipater of Tarsus as head of the Stoic school. The right of citizenship was offered him by the Athenians, but he refused it. His chief pupil in philosophy was Posidonius of Apamea. In his teaching he laid stress on ethics; and his most important works, of which only insignificant fragments are preserved, were on this subject. They are as follow: Hepi Tou KatitiovTos (On Duty), in three books, the original of the first two books of Cicero's De officiis; Hepi srpovotas (On Providence), used by Cicero in his De divinatione (ii.) and probably in part of the second book of the De Deorum natura; a political treatise (perhaps called Hepi .nroXtnnKfls), used by Cicero in his De republica; Hepi euBvµtas (On Cheerfulness); Hepi aipEoewv (On Philosophical Schools); a letter to Q. Aelius Tubero; De dolore patiendo (Cicero, De finibus, iv. 9, 23). Edition of the fragments by H. N. Fowler (Bonn, 1885), and in F. van Lynden's monograph (Leiden, 1802). See also A. Schmekel, Die Philosophie der mittleren Stoa (1892) ; F. Susemihl, Geschichte der griechischen Litteratur in der Alexandrinerzeit (1892), H. 63–8o; E. Zeller, " Beitrage zur Kenntniss des Stoikers Panatius " in Cornmentationes philologae in honorem Th. Mommseni (1877) ; on the use made of him by Cicero, R. Hirzel, Untersuchungen > u Ciceros philosophischen Schriften (1877-1883). For his importance in the Stoic succession and his philosophy generally, see STOICS.
End of Article: PANAETIUS (c. 185-18o to I10-108 B.C.)
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