PANDURA (tanboura, tanbur, tambora, mandore, pandore, bandora, bandoer, &c.), an
See also:oriental stringed instrument, a member of the
See also:family, having a long
See also:neck, a highly- vaulted back, and originally two or three strings plucked by the fingers . There were in antiquity at least two distinct varieties of pandura, or tanbur . (I) The more or less
See also:pear- shaped type used in
See also:Assyria and
See also:Persia and introduced by way of
See also:Asia Minor into Gree,:e, whence it passed to the
See also:Empire . In this type the
See also:body, when the graceful inward curves which led up gradually from
See also:base to neck were replaced by a more sloping outline, approximated to an elongated triangle with the corners rounded off- (2) The
See also:oval type, a favourite instrument of the Egyptians, also found in ancient Persia and among the
See also:Arabs of
See also:North Africa, who introduced it into Spain . Our definite knowledge of the pandura is derived from the
See also:treatise on
See also:music by Farabi,' the Arab
See also:scholar who flourished See Michael
See also:Casiri, Bibl . Arab . Hisp., i.347 . in the loth century . He mentions two kinds of tanburs, devoting to each a
See also:chapter, i.e. the tanbur of Khorasan, the Persian type, and the tanbur of
See also:Bagdad, the
See also:Assyrian variety; these differ in
See also:form, in length, and in the arrangement of the frets . Unfortunately, Farabi does not describe the shape of the body, being more concerned with the musical scale and compass of the instrument; but means of
See also:identification are supplied by ancient monuments . There is a tanbur on an Assyrian bas-
See also:relief of the reign of Assur-nasir-
See also:pal, c . 88o B.C .
See also:British Museum), on a slab illustrating
See also:life; the musician is playing on a pear-shaped tanbur with a very long slender neck, which would have served for two strings at the most, while two men, disguised in the skins of
See also:wild beasts, are dancing in front of him . There were in Farabi's
See also:day five frets at least, whereas on the tanbur of Khorasan there were no fewer than eighteen, which extended for
See also:half the length of the instrument . Five of these frets were fixed or invariable in position, the thirteen others being interpolated between them . The fixed frets, counting from the
See also:nut, gave an
See also:interval of one
See also:tone to the first, of a
See also:fourth to the second, of a fifth to the third, of an octave to the fourth, and of a major ninth to the fifth, thus providing a succession of fourths and fifths . The additional frets were placed between these, so that the octaves generally contained seventeen intervals of one-third tone each . The two
See also:principal accordances for the tanbur of Khorasan were the
See also:marriage' when the strings. were in unison, and the lute or accordance in fourths . Farabi mentions a tail-piece or zobalba, to which the strings, generally two in number but sometimes three, were attached; they rested on a
See also:bridge provided with as many notches as there were strings . In the tanbur of Khorasan they were
See also:round pegs placed opposite each other in the two sides of the
See also:head, as in the
See also:violin . Pollux' states that the pandura was invented by the Assyrians or Egyptians, and had three strings .
See also:Reinach 2 is of opinion that pandura was a generic
See also:term for
See also:instruments of the lute type during the Roman and Alexandrine periods . This may be the case, but from the modern standpoint we cannot in our
See also:classification afford to disregard the invariable characteristics observed in the modern, no less than in the ancient and
See also:medieval, tanburs or panduras . To be able to identify the pandura it is as well to bear in mind the distinctive features of other instruments with which it might be confounded .
The tanbur had a long neck resembling asection of a cylinder and a highly vaulted back, and its strings were plucked . In the rehab the neck was wanting or at best rudimentary, consisting of the gradual narrowing of the body towards the head, and during the
See also:middle ages in
See also:Europe, as
See also:rebec, it was always a bowed instrument . The early lutes had larger bodies than tanburs, the neck was
See also:short compared to the length of the body, the head was generally bent back at right angles, and the
See also:convex was not so deeply vaulted as that of the tanbur . The barbiton or
See also:bass lute had a long neck also, but wider, to take six, seven, or even nine strings, and from the back or
See also:profile view the general appearance was what is known as
See also:boat-shaped . Under the Romans the pandura had become somewhat modified: the long neck was preserved but was made wider to take four strings, and the body was either oval 3 or slightly broader at the base, but without the inward curves of the pear-shaped instruments . A striking example of the former is to be seen among the
See also:marbles of the
See also:Townley Collection at the British Museum on a bas-relief illustrating the marriage feast of
See also:Eros and
See also:Psyche, a Roman sculpture assigned to c . 15o Inc . This example is of
See also:great value to the archaeology of music, for the instrument can be studied in full and in profile . The arrangement of the four pegs in the back of the head is Oriental . The Persians had a six-stringed tanbur,4 which they distinguished i Onomasticon, iv . 6o . 2 See Daremberg and Saglio,
See also:des antiquites grecques et romaines, article "
See also:Lyre," p .
145o; also Revue des etudes grecques, viii . 371, &c., with illustrations, some of which the
See also:present writer would prefer to classify as early lutes, owing to the
See also:absence of the characteristic long neck of the tanburs . 3 This instrument resembles the oval tanburs represented in the miniatures of musicians in the Cantigas di
See also:Santa Maria (13th century) having two strings, and on each side a
See also:group of three very small, round sound-holes, probably of Moorish origin . The MS. is numberea J. b . 2 in the
See also:Escorial; the miniatures are reproduced in J . F . Riano's Critical and Biogr . Notes on early
See also:Spanish Music (
See also:London, 1887) . 4 In the miniatures-of the Cantigas there are oval tanburs withas the scheschta,s whereas a three-stringed variety was known as the schrud . The tanbur survived during the middle ages and as
See also:late as the 18th century; it may be traced in the musical documents of several countries . In England the name of pandura or bandoer was given to an instrument with
See also:wire strings having no characteristic structural feature in
See also:common with the ancient tanbur but resembling the
See also:cittern (q.v.) . The bandoer had a
See also:flat back and sound-
See also:board joined by ribs having a wavy outline .
See also:size of the same instrument was called orphoreon, and a larger and wider penorcon; these are described and figured by
See also:Praetorius,3 who suggests that this instrument, invented in England as bandoer, is probably similar to the Greek iravOoOpa . This bandora, we learn from an entry in
See also:Philip Leycester's7
See also:index to his
See also:book of 1575, was invented by "
See also:Rose dwellinge in
See also:anno 4to
See also:Elizabeth, =*ho
See also:left a sonne farre exceedinge himself in makinge instruments.' A 17th-century French MS . (Add . 30342, fol . 144) in the British Museum, containing drawings of musical instruments, gives the tambora, not the
See also:English hybrid, but a true descendant of the ancient Oriental tanbur, with nine strings, a rose sound-hole and seven frets; the French writer erroneously states that it is similar to the cistre (cittern) . Filippo Bonanni3 gives an
See also:illustration of the same kind of instrument, with ten strings in five pairs of unisons, and calls it pandura . (K .
PANDULPH [PANDOLFO] (d. 1226)
PANE (Fr. pan, Lat. pannus, a cloth, garment)
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