See also:mythology, son of Hermes and one of the daughters of Dryops ("
See also:oak-man "), or of
See also:Zeus and the nymph
See also:god of shepherds, flocks and forests . He is not mentioned in
See also:Homer or
See also:Hesiod . The most poetical account of his
See also:birth and
See also:life is given in the so-called Homeric hymn To
See also:Pan . He was
See also:born with horns, a
See also:beard and feet and a tail, his
See also:person being completely covered with hair . His
See also:mother was so alarmed at his appearance that she fled; but Hermes took him to
See also:Olympus, where he became the favourite of the gods, especially Dionysus . His life and characteristics are typical of the old shepherds and goatherds . He was essentially a rustic god," a
See also:wood-spirit conceived in the
See also:form of a goat," living in woods and caves, and traversing the tops of the mountains; he protected and gave fertility to flocks; he hunted and fished; and sported and danced with the
See also:nymphs . A
See also:lover of
See also:music, he invented the shepherd's
See also:pipe, said to have been made from the
See also:reed into which the nymph
See also:Syrinx was transformed when fleeing from his embraces (Ovid, Metam. i . 691 sqq.) . With a kind of
See also:trumpet formed out of a
See also:shell he terrified the
See also:Titans in their fight with the Olympian gods . By his unexpected appearance he sometimes inspires men with sudden terror—hence the expression " panic " fear . Like other
See also:spirits of the woods and
See also:fields, he possesses the power of inspiration and prophecy, in which he is said to have instructed
See also:Apollo .
As a nature-god he was brought into connexion withCybele and Dionysus, the latter of whom. he accompanied on his
See also:Indian expedition . Associated with Pan is a number of Panisci, male and
See also:forest imps, his wives and
See also:children, who send evil dreams and
See also:apparitions to terrify mankind . His
See also:original home was
See also:Arcadia; his cult was introduced into Athens at the
See also:time of the
See also:battle of
See also:Marathon, when he promised his assistance against the Persians if the Athenians in return would worship him . A cave was consecrated to him on the
See also:north side of the Acropolis, where he was annually honoured with a sacrifice and a
See also:race (
See also:Herodotus vi . 105) . In later times, by a misinterpretation of his name (or from the
See also:identification of the Greek god with the ram-headed
See also:Egyptian god Chnum, the creator of the
See also:world), he was pantheistically conceived as the universal god (TO rag) . The
See also:pine and oak were sacred to him, and his offerings were goats,
See also:lambs, cows, new
See also:honey and milk . The Romans identified him with Inuus and Faunus . In
See also:art Pan is represented in two different aspects . Sometimes he has goat's feet and horns,
See also:curly hair and a long beard,
See also:half animal, half man; sometimes he is a handsome youth, with long flowing hair, only characterized by horns just beginning to grow, the shepherd's crook and pipe . In bas-reliefs he is often shown presiding over the dances of nymphs, whom he is sometimes pursuing in a state of
See also:intoxication . He has furnished some of the attributes of the ordinary conception of the devil .
See also:story (alluded to by Milton,
See also:Rabelais, Mrs
See also:Browning and Schiller) of the '
See also:pilot Thamus, who, sailing near the
See also:island of Paxi in the time of Tiberius, was commanded by a mighty
See also:voice to proclaim that " Pan is dead," is found in Plutarch (De orac. defectu, 17) . As this story coincided with the birth (or crucifixion) of Christ it was thought to
See also:herald the end of the old world and the beginning of the new . According to Roscher (in Neue Jahrbiicher fur Philologie, 1892) it was of Egyptian origin, the name Thamus being connected with Thmouis, a
See also:town in the neighbourhood of Mendes, distinguished for the worship of the ram; according to Herodotus (ii . 46), in Egyptian the goat and Pan were both called Mendes . S .
See also:Reinach suggests that the words uttered by the " voice " were eaµous, Oaµo"us, sravµeyas, TEBv17Ke (" Tammuz, Tammuz, the all-
See also:great, is dead "), and that it was merely the lament for the " great Tammuz " or
See also:Adonis (see L . R . Farneil in The
See also:Work in Classical Studies, 1907) . See W . Gebhard, Pankultus (
See also:Brunswick, 1872) ; P . Wetzel, De Jove et Pane dis arcadicis (
See also:Breslau, 1873); W . Immerwahr, Kulte et Mythen Arkadiens (1891), vol. i., and V .
See also:Berard, De l'Origine
See also:des cultes arcadiens (1894), who endeavour to show that Pan is a
See also:sun-god (4av, 4'alvu) ; articles by W . H . Roscher in Lexikon der Mythologie and by J . A . Hild in Daremberg and Saglio's Dictionnaire des
See also:Anti-guiles.; E . E . Sikes in Classical Review (1895), ix . 70; O . Gruppe, GriechischeMythologie (1906), vol. ii .
PAMPLONA, or PAMPELUNA
PAN (common in various forms to many Teutonic langu...
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