PAPHOS , an
See also:ancient city and sanctuary on the west
See also:coast of Cyprus . The sanctuary and older
See also:town (Pa]aepaphos) lie at Kouklia, about 20 M. west of
See also:Limasol, about a mile inland on the
See also:bank of the Diorizo
See also:River (anc . Bocarus), the mouth of which formed its
See also:harbour . New Paphos (Papho or Baffo), which had already superseded Old Paphos in
See also:Roman times, lies 10 m. farther west, and m. south of
See also:modern Ktima, at the other end of a fertile coast-plain . Paphos was believed to have been founded either by the Arcadian Agapenor, returning from the Trojan War (c . 118o B.C.), or by his reputed contemporary Cinyras, whose
See also:clan retained royal privileges down to the Ptolemaic
See also:conquest of Cyprus in 295 B.C., and held the Paphian priesthood till the Roman occupation in 58 B.C . The town certainly
See also:dates back to the close of the Mycenaean
See also:Bronze age, and had a
See also:king Eteandros among the
See also:allies of Assur-bani-
See also:pal of
See also:Assyria in 668 B.C.1 A later king of the same name is commemorated by two inscribed bracelets of gold now in the Metropolitan Museum of New
See also:York . In Hellenic times the
See also:kingdom of Paphos was only second to
See also:Salamis in extent and influence, and bordered on those of Soli and Curium . Paphos owes its ancient fame to the cult of the " Paphian goddess" (rt Hacbial avcw ra, or it IIacpia, in inscriptions, or simply 8ea), a nature-worship of the same type as the cults of Phoenician
See also:Astarte, maintained by a
See also:college of, orgiastic ministers, practising sensual excess and self-mutilation.2 The Greeks identified both this and a similar cult at
See also:Ascalon with their own worship of
See also:Aphrodite,3 and localized at Paphos the
See also:legend of her
See also:birth from the
See also:sea foam, which is in fact accumulated here, on certain winds, in masses more than a
See also:foot deep.4 Her
See also:grave also was 1 E .
See also:Schrader, Abh. k . Preuss . Ak .
Wiss . (1879), pp . 31-36; Sitzb. k . Preuss . Ak . Wiss . (1890), pp . 337-344 . 2 Athan. c. graecos, to . On all these cults see J . G . Frazer,
See also:Osiris (
See also:London, 1906) .
3Herod. i. t05; See further ASTARTE, APHRODITE . 4 Oberhummer, Die Insel Cypern (
See also:Munich, 1903), pp . 108-11o .
See also:PAPIAS-PAPIE.R MACHE 737 shown in this city . She was worshipped, under the
See also:form of a conical
See also:stone, in an open-air sanctuary of the usual Cypriote type (not unlike those of Mycenaean
See also:Greece), the general form of which is known from representations on
See also:late gems, and on Roman imperial coins;' its ground plan was discovered by excavations in x888.2 It suffered repeatedly from earthquakes, and was rebuilt more than once; in Roman times it consisted of an open
See also:court, irregularly quadrangular, with porticos and
See also:chambers on three sides, and a gateway through them on the east . The position of the sacred stone, and the
See also:interpretation of many details shown on the gems and coins, remain uncertain . South of the
See also:main court lie the remains of what may be either an earlier
See also:temple, or the traditional
See also:tomb of Cinyras, almost wholly destroyed except its west
See also:wall of gigantic stone slabs . After the foundation of New Paphos and the extinction of the Cinyrad and Ptolemaic dynasties, the importance of the Old Town declined rapidly . Though restored by
See also:Augustus and renamed Sebaste, after the
See also:earthquake of 15 B.C., and visited in state by Titus before his Jewish War in 79 B.C., it was ruinous and desolate by
See also:Jerome's time3; but the
See also:prestige of its
See also:kings partly lingers in the exceptional privileges of the
See also:patriarch of the Cypriote
See also:Church (see CYPRUS, CHURCH OF) . New Paphos became the administrative capital of the whole
See also:island in Ptolemaic and Roman days, as well as the
See also:head of one of the four Roman districts; it was also a flourishing commercial city in the
See also:time of
See also:Strabo, and famous for its oil, and for " diamonds " of medicinal power . There was a festal procession thence annually to the ancient temple . In A.D .
96o it was attacked and destroyed by the
See also:Saracens . The site shows a Roman theatre, amphitheatre, temple and other ruins, with
See also:part of the city wall, and the moles of the Roman harbour, with a ruined Greek
See also:cathedral and other
See also:medieval buildings . Outside the walls lies another columnar
See also:building . Some
See also:rock tombs hard by may be of earlier than Roman date . See W . H . Engel, Kypros (Berlin, 1841) (classical allusions) ; M . R .
See also:James and others, Journ . Hellenic Studies, ix . 147 sqq . (
See also:history and archaeology); G .
See also:Hill, Brit .
See also:Mus . Cat . Coins of Cyprus (London, 1904) (coins) ;
See also:art . " Aphrodite " in Roscher's
See also:Lexicon der gr. u. rom . Mythologie; also
See also:works cited in footnotes, and article CYPRUS . (J . L .
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