See also:God and for chosen men, which occurs in the Greek Bible, both for the earthly "
See also:garden " of Eden (see EDEN), and for the heavenly " garden," where true Israelites after
See also:death see the
See also:face of God (4 Esdras viii . 52; Luke
See also:xxiii . 43; 2
See also:Cor . Xii . 4; Rev. ii . 7) . The
See also:Hebrew parties (one), to which 7rapaaecvos corresponds, occurs thrice in the Old Testament in
See also:late books, in the general sense of "
See also:grove "; it is derived somewhat hazardously from the Zend pairidae"za, an enclosure (once only in the Avesta), though another word (
See also:Vera) is used in the account of the mythical enclosure of Yima (see DELUGE) . But what interests us most is not the name, but the conception and its imaginative vehicle . The conception is the
See also:original godlikeness of human nature, and the
See also:necessity of expecting a closer union between God and man in the future than is possible at
See also:present . The imaginative
See also:form which this conception takes is that before the present
See also:condition arose man dwelt near to God in God's own
See also:mountain home, and that when the
See also:mischief wrought by " the serpent " has been undone, man—or more strictly the true Israel—shall once more be admitted to his old
See also:privilege . According to the fullest Old Testament account (Ezek.
See also:xxviii . 12–19; see
See also:ADAM), the
See also:holy mountain was in a definite earthly region, and certainly it was appropriate for worshippers of Yahweh that it should be so (1
See also:Kings xx .
23, 28) . But there are traces in that account itself as well as in Gen. ii. that an earlier belief placed the divine home in
See also:heaven . Similarly the Zoroastrians speak of their
See also:Paradise-mountain Alburz both as heavenly and as earthly (Bundahish, xx. r, with West's note) . It appears that originally the Hebrew Paradise-mountain was placed in heaven, but that afterwards it was transferred to
See also:earth . It was of stupendous
See also:size; indeed, properly it was the earth itself.' Later on each Semitic
See also:people may have chosen its own mountain, recognizing, however, perhaps, that in primeval times it was of vaster dimensions than at present, just as the Jews believed that in the next age the " mountain of Yahweh's
See also:house " would become far larger (Isa. ii . 2= Mic. iv . 1; Ezek. xl . 2; Zech. xiv. ro; Rev. xxi. so); compare the idealization of the earthly Alburz of the Iranians " in
See also:revelation " (Bund. v . 3, viii . 2, xii . 1–8) . We now return to the accounts in Ezek. xxviii. and Gen. ii .
The references in the former to theprecious stones and to the " stones of
See also:fire " may be grouped with the references in
See also:Enoch (xviii . 6–8,
See also:xxiv.) to seven supernatural mountains each composed of a different beautiful
See also:stone, and with the
See also:throne of God on the seventh . These mountains are to be connected with the seven
See also:planets, each of which was symbolized by a different
See also:metal, or at least
See also:colour.' Ezekiel's mountain therefore has come to earth from heaven . And a similar result follows if we
See also:group the four
See also:rivers of Paradise in Gen. ii. with the phrase so often applied to
See also:Canaan, " flowing with milk and
See also:honey " (Exod. iii . 8; Num. xiii . 27, &c.) . For this descriptive phrase is evidently mythical,' and refers to the belief in the four rivers of the heavenly Paradise which " poured honey and milk, oil and
See also:wine " (
See also:Slavonic Enoch, viii . 5; cf . Vision of Paul, xxiii.) . In fact, the four rivers originally flowed in heavenly
See also:soil, and only when the mountain of Elohim was transferred to this
See also:lower earth could mythological geographers think of determining their earthly course, and whether Havilah, or
See also:Cush, or Canaan, or Babylonia, was irrigated by one or another of them . But what happened to Paradise when the affrighted human pair
See also:left it ? One view (see Eth .
Enoch, xxxii . 2, 3, lx . 8, lxxvii . 3, 4, &c.) was that its site was in some nameless, inaccessible region, still guarded by " the serpents and the
See also:cherubim " (Eth . Enoch, xx . 7), and that in the next age its
See also:gates would be opened, and the threatening sword (Gen. iii . 24) put away by the Messianic
See also:king (Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, Levi, 18) . This agrees with the
See also:story in Gen. ii., iii., except that the original narrator knew the site of the garden . It is a sufficiently reasonable view, for if Paradise
See also:lay in some definite earthly region, and if no one knows " the paths of Paradise " (4 Esdras iv . 7), it would seem that it must have ceased to exist visibly . This idea appears to be implied by those Jewish writers, who, especially after the fall of Jerusalem (A.D . 70), 'dwelt so much on the hope of the heavenly Paradise, reviving, partly under emotional pressure and partly as the result of a fresh influx of
See also:mythology, the old myth of a
See also:celestial garden of God .
See also:notice only a few leading passages . In Apoc .
See also:Bar. iv . 3 it appears to be stated that when Adam transgressed, the vision of the city of God and the possession of Paradise were removed from him, and similarly the stress laid in 4 Esdras iv . 7, vi . 2, vii . (36), 53, viii . 52, on the heavenly Paradise seems to show that no earthly one was supposed to exist.4 Beautiful, indeed, is the use made of that form of belief in these passages, with which we may group Rev. xxi . 1, xxii . 5, where, as in 4 Esdras viii . 52, Paradise and the city of God are combined . Some
See also:strange disclosures on this subject are made by the Slavonic Enoch (c. viii.; cf. xlii .
3), according to which there are two Paradises . The former is in the third heaven, which explains the well-known saying of St Paul in 2 Cor. xii . 2, 4; o' It was the Babylonian " mountain of the lands," which meant not only
See also:mother earth, but the earth imagined to exist within the heaven; cf . Jeremias, Atao, pp . II, 12, 28, and Jastrow, Religion f Bab. and Ass., p . 558 . 2 See Zimmern, K.A.T . (3), pp . 616 sqq . 3 See also r Esdras ii . 19 . This explains Joel iv .
See also:lea. lv. r (wine and milk) . See also Yasna, 'die . 5 (Zendavesta) ; and cf .
See also:Cheyne, Ency . Bib., col . 2104, and especially Usener, Rheinisches Museum, 'vii . 177-192 . 4 The statement in Gen. iii . 24 comes from a form of the story in which the " garden " was not geographically localized.the latter is conventionally called the Paradise of Eden . In fact, the belief in an earthly Paradise never wholly died .
See also:Medieval writers loved it . The mountain of Purgatory in
See also:Dante's poem is " crowned by the delicious shades of the terrestrial Paradise." See further The Apocalypse of
See also:Baruch and The Ethiopic and the Slavonic Enoch, both edited by R .
See also:Charles; also Kautzsch's Apocrypha, and
See also:Vole, Judische Eschatologie (1903), pp . 374–8, whose full references are most useful . On the Biblical references, cf . Gunkel,
See also:Genesis (2), pp . 21–35; Cheyne, Ency . Bib., " Paradise "; and on Babylonian views, Jeremias, " Holle and Paradies " (in Der alte Orient) . The
See also:Mahommedan's Paradise is a sensuous trans-formation of the Jewish; see especially
See also:Koran, Sura Iv., and note the phrase " gardens of Firdaus," Koran, xviii . Io7 . For the Koran and the Zoroastrian books see the Sacred Books of the East (
See also:Oxford Series) . The doorkeeper of the mountain-Paradise of the
See also:Parsees is the Amshaspand Vohu-mano (Vendidad, xix . 31) .
(T . K .
PARADE (Fr. parade, an adaptation from Ital. parada...
PARADOS (Fr. = back cover)
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