See also:born in
See also:Selkirkshire, Scotland, on the 20th of
See also:September 1991, at Foulshiels on the Yarrow—the
See also:farm which his
See also:father rented from the duke of
See also:Buccleuch . He was the seventh in a
See also:family of thirteen . Having received a
See also:education, he was apprenticed to a surgeon named
See also:Anderson in
See also:Selkirk, and then attended the university of
See also:Edinburgh for three sessions (1789-1791), obtaining the surgical diploma . By his
See also:James Dickson, a botanist of repute, he was introduced to
See also:Banks, then
See also:president of the Royal Society, and through his good offices obtained the
See also:post of assistant-surgeon on hoard the "
See also:Worcester" East Indiaman . In this capacity he made the voyage in 1792 to Benkulen, in
See also:Sumatra, and on his return in 1793 he contributed a description of eight new Sumatran fishes to the Transactions of the Linnean Society .
See also:Park in 1794 offered his services to the
See also:African Association, then looking out for a successor to Major Daniel Houghton, who had been sent out in 1790 to discover the course of the Niger and had perished in the
See also:Sahara . Supported by the influence of Sir Joseph Banks, Park was successful in his application . On the 21st of
See also:June 1795 he reached the
See also:Gambia and ascended that
See also:river 200
See also:miles to a
See also:British trading station named Pisania . On the 2nd of
See also:December, accompanied by two
See also:negro servants, he started for the unknown interior . He
See also:chose the route
See also:crossing the upper
See also:basin and through the semi-
See also:desert region of Kaarta . The
See also:journey was full of difficulties, and at Ludamar he was imprisoned by a Moorish chief for four months . He escaped, alone and with nothing save his
See also:horse and a
See also:pocket compass, on the 1st of
See also:July 1796, and on the 21st of the same
See also:month reached the long-sought Niger at Segu, being the first
See also:European to gaze on its
See also:waters .
He followed the river down stream 8o m. to Silla, where he was obliged to turn back, being without means and utterly exhausted . On his return journey, begun on the 3oth of July, he took a route more to thesouth than that originally followed, keeping close to the Niger as far as Bamako, thus tracing the course of that stream in all for some 300 miles . At Kamalia he fell
See also:ill, and owed his
See also:life to the kindness of a negro in whose
See also:house he lived for seven months . Eventually he reached Pisania again on the loth of June 1797, returning to England by way of
See also:America on the 22nd of December . He had been thought to be dead, and his return home with the
See also:news of the
See also:discovery of the Niger evoked
See also:great public
See also:enthusiasm . An account of his journey was at once
See also:drawn up for the African Association by
See also:Edwards, and a detailed narrative from his own
See also:pen appeared in 1799 (Travels in the Interior of Africa) . Abundance of incident and an unaffected
See also:style rendered the
See also:work extremely popular, and it still holds its place as an acknowledged classic in this department of literature . Settling at Foulshiels, Park in
See also:August 1799 married a daughter of his old
See also:master, Thomas Anderson . Two offers made to him to go to New South
See also:Wales in some official capacity came to nothing, and in
See also:October 18o1 Park removed to
See also:Peebles, where he practised as a
See also:doctor . In the autumn of 1803 he was invited by the
See also:government to lead another expedition to the Niger . Park, who chafed at the hardness and monotony of life at Peebles, accepted the offer, but the starting of the expedition was delayed .
See also:Part of the waiting
See also:time was occupied in the perfecting of his Arabic—his teacher being Sidi Ambak Bubi, a native of
See also:Mogador; whose vagaries both amused and alarmed the
See also:people of Peebles .
In May 1804 Park went back to Foulshiels, where he made the acquaintance of SirWalter
See also:Scott,then living near by at Ashesteil, with whom he soon became on terms of warm friendship . In September he was summoned to
See also:London to leave on the new expedition; he parted from Sir Walter with the hopeful
See also:proverb on his lips, " Freits (omens) follow those that look to them." Park had at that time adopted the theory that the Niger and the
See also:Congo were one, and in a memorandum drawn up before he
See also:left England he wrote: " My hopes of returning by the Congo are not altogether fanciful." He sailed from Portsmouth for the Gambia on the 3ist of
See also:January 1805i having been given a captain's commission as
See also:head of the government expedition .
See also:Alexander' Anderson, his brother-in-law, was second in command, and on him was ,bestowed a lieutenancy .
See also:George Scott, a
See also:fellow Borderer, was draughtsman, and the party included four or five artificers . At
See also:Goree (then in British occupation) Park was joined by
See also:Lieutenant Martyn, R.A.,
See also:thirty-five privates and two
See also:seamen . The expedition did not reach the Niger until the
See also:middle of August, when only eleven Europeans were left alive; the
See also:rest had succumbed to fever or dysentery . From Bamako the journey o Segu was made by
See also:canoe . Having received per-
See also:mission from the ruler of that
See also:town to proceed, at Sansandig, a little below Segu, Park made ready for his journey down the still unknown part of the river . Park, helped by one soldier, the only one left capable of work, converted two canoes into one tolerably good
See also:boat, 40 ft. long and 6 ft. broad . This he christened H.M.
See also:schooner "Joliba" (the native name for the Niger), and in it, with the surviving members of his party, ha set
See also:sail down stream on the 19th of
See also:November . At Sansandigr on the 28th of October, Anderson had died, and in him Park lost the only member of the party-except Scott, already dead—who had been of real use . Those who embarked in the " Joliba " were Park, Martyn, three European soldiers (one mad), a
See also:guide and three slaves .
Before his departure Park gave to Isaaco, a
See also:Mandingo guide who had been with him thus far, letters to take back to the Gambia for transmission to England . The spirit with which Park began the final stage of his enterprise is well illustrated by his
See also:letter to the head of the Colonial
See also:Office: " shall," he wrote, " set sail for the east with the fixed
See also:resolution to discover the termination of the Niger or perish in the attempt though all the Europeans who are with me should die, and though I were myself
See also:half dead, I would still persevere, and if I could not succeed in the
See also:object of my journey, I would at least die on the Niger." To his wife he wrote stating his intention not to stop nor
See also:land anywhere fill he reached the
See also:coast, where he expected to arrive about the end of January 18o6 . These were the last communications received from Park, and nothing more was heard of the party until reports of disaster reached the settlements on the Gambia . At length the British government engaged Isaaco to go to the Niger to ascertain the
See also:fate of the explorer . At Sansandig Isaaco found the guide who had gone down stream with Park, and the substantial accuracy of the
See also:story he told was later confirmed by the investigations of Hugh
See also:Clapperton and
See also:Lander . This guide (Amadi) stated that Park's canoe descended the river to Yauri, where he (the guide) landed . In this long journey of about loon miles Park, who had plenty of provisions,
See also:stuck to his resolution of keeping aloof from the natives . Below
See also:Jenne, came Timbuktu, and at various other places the natives came out in canoes and attacked his boat . These attacks were all repulsed, Park and his party having plenty of firearms and
See also:ammunition and the natives having none . The boat also escaped the many perils attendant on the navigation of an unknown stream strewn with many rapids—Park had built the " Joliba . " so that it drew only a
See also:foot of
See also:water . But at the
See also:Bussa rapids, not far below Yauri, the boat struck on a
See also:rock and remained fast .
See also:bank were gathered hostile natives, who attacked the party with
See also:bow and arrow and throwing spears . Their position being untenable, Park, Martyn, and the two soldiers who still survived, sprang into the river and were drowned . The
See also:sole survivor was one of the slaves, from whom was obtained the story of the final scene . Isaaco, and later Lander, obtained some of Park's effects, but his journal was never recovered . In 1827 his second son, Thomas, landed on the
See also:Guinea coast, intending to make his way to Bussa, where he thought his father might be detained a prisoner, but after penetrating some little distance inland he died of fever . Park's widow died in 184o . J .
See also:Thomson's Mungo Park and the Niger (London, 189o) contains the best critical estimate of the explorer and his work . See also the Life (by
See also:Wishaw) prefixed to Journal of a Mission into the Interior of Africa in 1805 (London, 1815) ; H . B., Life of Mungo Park (Edinburgh, 1835) ; and an interesting passage in
See also:Lockhart's Lift of Sir Walter Scott, vol. ii .
EDWARDS AMASA PARK (1808–1900)
JOHN HENRY PARKER (1806-1884)
We know that Mungo Park's second son was named Thomas. Can someone tell me the names of the other two sons? Could one of them be Adam ?
It is known that Mungo Park had three sons. One was Thomas, who also perished whilst exploring West Africa to find the real facts regarding his father's death. Can someone please tell me the names of the other two sons. I believe one may be Adam Park, an army surgeon who served in India during the 1820/30s.
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