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PASCHAL CHRONICLE (Chronicum Paschale...

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Originally appearing in Volume V20, Page 883 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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PASCHAL CHRONICLE (Chronicum Paschale, also Chronicum Alexandrinum or Constantinopolitanum, or Fasti Siculi), so called from being based upon the Easter canon, an outline of chronology' from Adam down to A.D. 629, accompanied by numerous historical and theological notes. The work, which is imperfect at the beginning and end (breaking off in the year 627), is preceded by an introduction on the Christian methods of reckoning time and the Easter cycle. It was written during the reign of Heraclius (610-641), and is generally attributed to an unknown Byzantine cleric and friend of the patriarch Sergius, who is specially alluded to as responsible for the introduction of certain ritual innovations. The so-called Byzantine or Roman era (which continued in use in the Greek Church until its liberation from Turkish rule) was adopted in the Chronicum for the first time as the foundation of chronology, in accordance with which the date of the creation is given as the 21st of March, 5507. The author is merely a compiler from earlier works, except in the history of the last thirty years, which has the value of a contemporary record. The chief authorities used were: Julius Sextus Africanus (3rd century); the consular Fasti; the Chronicle and Church History of Eusebius; John Malalas; the Arta martyrum; the treatise of Epiphanius, bishop of Constantia (the old Salamis) in Cyprus (fl. 4th century), on Weights and Measures. Editions: L. Dindorf (1832) in Corpus scriptorum hist. byzantinae, with Du Cange's preface and commentary; J. P. Migne, Patrologia graeca, xcii.; see also C. Wachsmuth, Einleitung in das Studium der alien Geschichte (1895) ; H. Gelzer, Sextus Julius Africanus and die byzantinische Chronographie, ii. r (1885); J. van der Hagen, Observationes in Heraclii imperatoris methodum paschalem (1736, but still considered indispensable) ; E. Schwarz in Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopadie, iii., pt. 2 (1899); C. Krumbacher, Geschichte der byzantinischen Litteralur (1897). PAS-DE-CALAIS, a maritime department of northern France, formed in 1790 of nearly the whole of Artois and the northern maritime portion of Picardy including Boulonnais, Calaisis, Ardresis, and the districts of Langle and Bredenarde, and bounded N. by the Straits of Dover (" Pas de Calais " ), E. by the department of Nord, S. by that of Somme, and W. by the English Channel. Pop. (1906), 1,012,466; Area 2606 sq. m. Except in the neighbourhood of Boulogne-sur-Mer with its cotes de fer or " iron coasts," the seaboard of the department, which measures 65 m., consists of dunes. From the mouth of the Aa (the limit towards Nord) it trends west-south-west to Gris Nez, the point of France nearest to England; in this section lie the port of Calais, Cape Blanc Nez, rising 44o ft. above the sandy shores, and the port of Wissant (Wishant). The seaside resorts include Boulogne, Berck-sur-Mer, Paris-Plage, Wimereux, &c. Beyond Griz Nez the direction is due south; in this section are the small port of Ambleteuse, Boulogne at the mouth of the Liane, and the two bays formed by the estuaries of the Canche and the Authie (the limit towards Somme). The highest point in the department (700 ft.) is in the west, between Boulogne and St Omer. From the uplands in which it is situated the Lys and Scarpe flow east to the Scheldt, the Aa north to the German Ocean, and the Slack, Wimereux and Liane to the Channel. Farther south are the valleys of the Canche and the Authie, running E.S.E. and W.N.W., and thus parallel with the Somme. Vast plains, open and monotonous, but extremely fertile and well cultivated, occupy most of the department. To the north of the hills running between St Omer and Boulogne, to the south of Gravelines and the south-east of Calais, lies the district of the Wattergands, fens now drained by means of canals and dikes, and turned into highly productive land. The climate is free from extremes of heat and cold, but damp and changeable. At Arras the mean annual temperature is 470; on the coast it is higher. The rainfall varies from 24 to 32 in., though at Cape Gris Nez the latter figure is much exceeded. Cereals are largely grown and give good yields to the acre; the other principal crops are potatoes, sugar-beet, forage, oil-plants and tobacco. Market gardening flourishes in the Wattergands. The rearing of livestock and poultry is actively carried on, and the horses of the Boulonnais are specially esteemed. The department is the chief in France for the production of coal, its principal coal-basin, which is a continuation of that of Valenciennes, centring round Bethune. The manufacture of beetroot-sugar, oil and alcohol distilling, iron-working, dyeing, brewing, paper-making, and various branches of the textile manufacture, are foremost among the industries of the department. Boulogne, Calais and Etaples fit out a considerable number of vessels for the cod, herring and • mackerel fisheries. Calais and Boulogne are important ports of passenger-transit for England; and Boulogne also carries on a large export trade in the products of the department. The canal system comprises part of the Aa, the Lys, the Scarpe, the Detlle (a tributary of the Lys passing by Lille), the Lawe (a tributary of the Lys passing by Bethune), and the Sensee (an affluent of the Scheldt), as well as the canals of Aire to Bauvin, Neuffosse, Calais, Calais to Ardres, &c., and in this way a line of communication is formed from the Scheldt to the sea by Bethune, St Omer and Calais, with branches to Gravelines and Dunkirk. The department is served by the Northern railway. Pas-de-Calais forms the diocese of Arras (archbishopric of Cambrai), belongs to the district of the I. army corps, the educational division (academie) of Lille and the circumscription of the appeal court of Douai. There are six arrondissements (Arras, Bethune, Boulogne, Montreuil-sur-Mer, St Omer and St Pol-sur-Ternoise). The more noteworthy places are Arras, the capital, Boulogne, Calais, St Omer, Bethune, Lens, Montreuil-sur-Mer, Bruay, Berck, Etaples and Aire-sur-la-Lys, which are noticed separately. Besides some of the towns mentioned, Lievin (22,070), Henin-Lietard (13,384), in the neighbourhood of Lens, are large centres of population. Other places of some importance are: Lillers (pop. 5341), which carries on boot-making and has a fine Romanesque church of the 12th century; Hesdin, which owes its regular plan to Charles V., by whom it was built; and St Poi, which has the remains of medieval fortifications and castles and gave its name to the famous counts of St Pol.
End of Article: PASCHAL CHRONICLE (Chronicum Paschale, also Chronicum Alexandrinum or Constantinopolitanum, or Fasti Siculi)
PASCHAL (Paschalis)

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