See also:modern literature in which the " idyll " of the Greeks and the "
See also:eclogue " of the Latins are imitated . It was a growth of humanism at the
See also:Renaissance, and its first home was Italy . Virgil had been imitated, even in the
See also:middle ages, but it was the example of
See also:Theocritus (q.v.) that was originally followed in pastoral . Pastoral, as it appeared in Tuscany in the 16th century, was really a
See also:developed eclogue, an idyll which had been
See also:expanded from a single scene into a drama . The first dramatic pastoral which is known to exist is the Favola di Orfeo of
See also:Politian, which was represented at
See also:Mantua in 1472 . This poem, which has been elegantly translated by J . A .
See also:Symonds, was a tragedy, with choral passages, on an idyllic theme, and is perhaps too
See also:grave in
See also:tone to be considered as a pure piece of pastoral . It led the way more directly to tragedy than to pastoral, and it is the Il Sagrifizio of Agostino Beccari, which was played at the
See also:court of
See also:Ferrara in 1554, that is always quoted as the first
See also:complete and actual dramatic pastoral in
See also:European literature . In the west of
See also:Europe there were various efforts made in the direction of non-dramatic pastoral, which it is hard to classify . Early in the 16th century
See also:Barclay, in England, translated the Latin eclogues of Mantuanus, a scholastic writer of the preceding age . Barnabe
See also:Googe, a generation later, in 1563, published his Eglogs, Epytaphes and Sonnettes, a deliberate but not very successful attempt to introduce pastoral into
See also:English literature .
InFrance it is difficult to deny the title of pastoral to various productions of the poets of the Pleiade, but especially to Remy
See also:miscellany of
See also:prose and
See also:verse in praise of a
See also:life, called La Bergerie (1535) . But the final impulse was given to non-dramatic pastoral by the publication, in 1504, of the famous
See also:Arcadia of J .
See also:Sannazaro, a
See also:work which passed through sixty
See also:editions before the close of the 16th century, and which was abundantly copied . Torquato
See also:Tasso followed Beccari after an
See also:interval of twenty years, and by the success of his Aminta, which was performed before the court of Ferrara in 1573, secured the popularity of dramatic pastoral . Most of the existing
See also:works in this class may be traced back to the influence either of the Arcadia or of the Aminta . Tasso was immediately succeeded by Alvisio Pasqualigo, who gave a comic turn to pastoral drama, and by Cristoforo Castelletti, in whose hands it
See also:grew heroic and romantic, while, finally, Guariniproduced in 1590 his famous Pastor Fido, and Ongaro his
See also:fisher-men's pastoral of Alceo in 1591 . During the last quarter of the 16th century pastoral drama was really a power in Italy . Some of the best
See also:poetry of the age was written in this
See also:form, to be acted privately on the stages of the little court theatres, that were everywhere springing up . In a
See also:music was introduced, and rapidly predominated, until the little forms of tragedy, and pastoral altogether, were merged .in
See also:opera . With the reign of
See also:Elizabeth a certain tendency to pastoral was introduced in England . In
See also:Gascoigne and in
See also:Whetstone traces have been observed of a tendency towards the form and spirit of eclogue . It has been conjectured that this tendency, combined with the study of the few extant eclogues of Clemont Marot, led Spenser to the composition of what is the finest example of pastoral in the English language, the Shepherd's
See also:Calendar, printed in 1579 .
This famous work is divided into twelve eclogues, and it is remarkable because of the constancy with which Spenser turns in it from the artificial Latin
See also:style of pastoral then popular in Italy, and takes his inspiration
See also:direct from Theocritus . It is important to note that this is the first effort made in European literature to bring upon a pastoral stage the actual rustics of a modern country, using their own
See also:peasant dialect . That Spenser's attempt was very imperfectly carried out does not militate against the genuineness of the effort, which the very adoption of such names as Willie and Cuddie, instead of the customary
See also:Damon and
See also:Daphnis, is enough to prove . Having led up to this work, the influence of which was to be confined to England, we return to Sannazaro's Arcadia, which
See also:left its mark upon every literature in Europe . This remarkable
See also:romance, which was the type and the
See also:original of so many succeeding pastorals, is written in
See also:rich but not laborious periods of musical prose, into which are inserted at frequent intervals passages of verse, contests between shepherds on the " humile
See also:fistula di Coridone," or laments for the
See also:death of some beautiful virgin . The characters move in a
See also:world of supernatural and brilliant beings; they commune without surprise with " i gloriosi spiriti degli boschi," and reflect with singular completeness their author's longing for an innocent voluptuous existence, with no
See also:hell or
See also:heaven in the background . It was in Spain that the influence of the Arcadia made itself most rapidly
See also:felt outside Italy . The earliest
See also:Spanish eclogues had been those of Juan de
See also:Encina, acted in 1492 . Gil
See also:Vicente, who was also a Portuguese writer, had written Spanish religious pastorals early in the 16th century . But Garcilaso de la Vega is the founder of Spanish pastoral . His first eclogue, El Dulce lamentar de los pastores; is considered one of the finest poems of its kind in
See also:ancient or in modern literature . He wrote little, and died early, in 1536 .
Two Portuguese poets followed him, and composed pastorals in Spanish, Francisco de Sa de
See also:Miranda, who imitated Theocritus, and the famous Jorge de Montemayor, whose
See also:Diana (1524) was founded on Sannazaro's Arcadia . Gaspar Gil Polo, after the death of Montemayor in 1561, completed his romance, and published in 1564 a Diana enamorada . It will be recollected that both these works are mentioned with respect, in their kind, by Cervantes . The author of Don Quixote himself published an admirable pastoral romance, Galatea, in 1584 . In France there has always been so strong a tendency towards a graceful sort of bucolic literature that it is hard to decide what should and what should not be mentioned here . The charming pastourelles of the 13th century, with their knight on horseback and shepherdess by the roadside, need not detain us further than to hint that when the influence of
See also:Italian pastoral began to be felt in France these earlier lyrics gave it a
See also:national inclination . We have mentioned the Bergerie of Remy Belleau, in which the
See also:art of Sannazaro seems to join hands with the
See also:simple sweetness of the
See also:medieval pastourelle . But there was nothing in France that cculd compare with the school of Spanish pastoral writers which we have just noticed . Even the typical French pastoral, the Astree of Honore d'
See also:Urfe (161o), has almost more connexion with the knightly romances which Cervantes laughed at than with the pastorals which he praised . The famous Astr€e waa the result of the study of Tasso's Aminta on the one
See also:hand and Montemayor's Diana on the other, with a strong flavouring of the romantic spirit of the Amadis . To remedy the
See also:pagan tendency of the Asiree a
See also:Camus de Pontcarre, wrote a series of Christian pastorals . Racon produced in 1625 a pastoral drama,
See also:Les Bergeries, founded on the Aslree of D'Urfe .
In England the
See also:movement in favour of Theocritean simplicity which had been.introduced by Spenser in the Shepherd's Calendar, was immediately defeated by the success of
See also:Sidney's Arcadia, a romance closely modelled on the masterpiece of Sannazaro . So far from attempting to sink to colloquial idiom, and adopt a
See also:realism in rustic dialect, the tenor of Sidney's narrative is even more grave and stately than it is conceivable that the conversation of the most serious nobles can have ever been . Henceforward, in England; pastoral took one or other of these forms . It very shortly appeared, however, that the Sannazarian form was more suited to the
See also:temper of the age, even in England, than the Theocritean . In 1583 a
See also:great impetus was given to the former by Robert
See also:Greene, who was composing his Morando, and still more in 1584 by the publication of two pastoral dramas, the Gallathea of Lyl y and the Arraignment of
See also:Paris of
See also:Peele . It is doubtful whether either of these writers knew anything about the Arcadia of Sidney, which was posthumously published, but Greene, at all events, became more and more imbued with the Italian spirit of pastoral . His Menaphon and his Never too
See also:Late are pure bucolic romances . While in the general form of his stories, however, he follows Sidney, the verse which he introduces is often, especially in the Menaphon, extremely rustic and colloquial . In 1589
See also:Lodge appended some eclogues to his Scilla's
See also:Metamorphosis, but in his Rosalynde (1590) he made a much more important contribution to English literature in general, and to Arcadian poetry in particular . This beautiful and fantastic
See also:book is modelled more exactly upon the masterpiece of Sannazaro than any other in our language . The Sixe Idillia of 1588, paraphrases of Theocritus, are
See also:anonymous, but conjecture has attributed them to Sir
See also:Edward Dyer . In 1598 Bartholomew
See also:Young published an English version of the Diana of Montemayor .
See also:Watson published his collection of Latin elegiacal eclogues, entitled Amyntas, which was translated into English by Abraham
See also:Fraunce in 1587 . Watson is also the author of two frigid pastorals, Meliboeus (159o) and Amyntae gaudia (1592) .
See also:John Dickenson printed at a date unstated, but probably not later than 1592, a " passionate eclogue " called The Shepherd's Complaint, which begins with a harsh burst of hexameters, but which soon settles down into a harmonious prose
See also:story, with lyrical interludes . In 1594 the same writer published the romance of Arisbas .
See also:Drayton is the next pastoral poet in date of publication . His Idea: Shepherd's
See also:Garland bears the date 1593, but was probably written much earlier . In 1595 the same poet produced an Endimion and
See also:Phoebe, which was the least happy of his works . He then turned his fluent
See also:pen to the other branches of poetic literature; but after more than
See also:thirty years, at the very close of his life, he returned to this early love, and published in 1627 two pastorals, The Quest of Cynthia and The Shepherd's Sirena . The general character of all these pieces is rich, but vague and unimpassioned . The
See also:Queen's Arcadia of Daniel must be allowed to lie open to the same
See also:charge, and to have been written rather in accordance with a fashion than in following of the author's predominant impulse . The singular eclogue by
See also:Barnfield, The Affectionate Shepherd, printed in 1594, is an exercise. on the theme "O crudelis Alexi, nihil mea carmina curas," and, in spite of its juvenility and indiscretion, takes
See also:rank as the first really poetical following of Spenser and Virgil, in distinction to Sidney and Sannazaro . Marlowe's pastoral lyric Come live with Me, although not printed until 1599, has
See also:beer attributed to 1589 .
In 1600 was printed the anonymous pastoral
See also:comedy in
See also:rhyme, The Maid's
See also:Meta-morphosis, long attributed to Lyly . With the close of the 16th century pastoral literature was not extinguished in England as suddenly or as completely as it was in Italy and Spain . Throughout the romantic Jacobean age XX . 29897 the English love of country life asserted itself under the guise of pastoral sentiment, and the influence of Tasso and Guarini was felt in England just when it had ceased to be active in Italy . In England it became the fashion to publish lyrical eclogues, usually in short measure, a class of poetry
See also:peculiar to the nation and to that age . The lighter staves of The Shepherd's Calendar were the
See also:model after which all these graceful productions were
See also:drawn . We must confine ourselves to a brief enumeration of the
See also:principal among these Jacobean eclogues .
See also:Nicholas Breton came first with his Passionate Shepherd in 1604 .
See also:Wither followed with The Shepherd's
See also:Hunting in 1615, and Braithwaite, an inferior writer, published The Poet's
See also:Willow in 1613 and Shepherd's Tales in 1621 . The name of Wither must recall to our minds that of his friend
See also:Browne, who published in 1613—1616 his beautiful collection of Devonshire idylls called Britannia's Pastorals . These were in heroic verse, and less distinctly Spenserian in character than those eclogues recently mentioned . In 1614 Browne, Wither, Christopher
See also:Brook and
See also:Davies of
See also:united in the composition of a little
See also:volume of pastorals entitled The Shepherd's
See also:Pipe .
Meanwhile the composition of pastoral dramas was not entirely discontinued . In 16o6
See also:Day dramatized
See also:part of Sidney's Arcadia in his Isle of Gulls, and about 1625 the Rev .
See also:Thomas Goffe composed his Careless Shepherdess, which
See also:Jonson deigned to imitate in the opening lines of his Sad Shepherd . In 1610
See also:Fletcher produced his Faithful Shepherdess in emulation of the Aminta of Tasso . This is the principal pastoral
See also:play in the language, and, in spite of its faults in moral taste, it preserves a
See also:fascination which has evaporated from most of its
See also:fellows . The Arcades of Milton is scarcely dramatic; but it is a bucolic ode of great stateliness and beauty . In the Sad Shepherd, which was perhaps written about 1635, and in his pastoral masques, we see Ben Jonson not disdaining to follow along the track that Fletcher had pointed out in the Faithful Shepherdess . With the Piscatory Eclogues of Phineas Fletcher, in 1633, we may take leave of the more studied forms of pastoral in England early in the 17th century . When pastoral had declined in all the other nations of Europe, it enjoyed a curious recrudescence in
See also:Holland . More than a century after date, the Arcadia of Sannazaro began to exercise an influence on Dutch literature . Johan
See also:van Heemskirk led the way with his popular Batavische Arcadia in 1637 . In this curious romance the shepherds and shepherdesses move to and fro between Katwijk and the
See also:Hague, in a landscape unaffectedly Dutch .
Heemskirk had a
See also:troop of imitators . Hendrik Zoeteboom published his Zaanlandsche Arcadia in 1658, and Lambertus
See also:Bos his Dordtsche Arcadia in 1662 . These
See also:local imitations of the suave Italian pastoral were followed by still more crude romances, the Ratterdamsche Arcadia of Willem den Eiger, the Walchersche Arcadia of Gargon, and the Noordwijker Arcadia of Jacobus van der Valk . Germany has nothing to offer us of this class, for the Diana of Werder (1644) and Die adriatische Rosamund of Zesen (1645) are scarcely pastorals even in form . In England the writing of eclogues of the sub-Spenserian class of Breton and Wither led in another generation to a rich growth of lyrics which may be roughly called pastoral, but are not strictly bucolic . Carew,
See also:Lovelace, Suckling,
See also:Stanley and
See also:Cartwright are lyrists who all contributed to this
See also:harvest of country
See also:song, but by far the most copious and the most characteristic of the pastoral lyrists is
See also:Herrick . He has, perhaps, no
See also:rival in modern literature in this particular direction . His command of his resources, his deep originality and observation, his power of concentrating his
See also:genius on the details of rural beauty, his
See also:interest in recording homely facts of country life, combined with his extraordinary
See also:gift of song to place him in the, very first rank among pastoral writers; and it is noticeable that in Herrick's hands, for the first time, the pastoral became a real and modern, instead of being an ideal and humanistic thing . From him we date the recognition in poetry of the humble beauty that lies about our doors . His genius and influence were almost instantly obscured by the Restoration . During the final decline of the Jacobean drama a certain number of pastorals were still produced . Of these the only ones which deserve II mention are three dramatic adaptations,
See also:Shirley's Arcadia (164o),
See also:Fanshawe's Pastor Fido (1646), and Leonard Willan's
See also:Astraea (1651) .
The last pastoral drama in the 17th century wasSettle's Pastor Fido (1677) . The Restoration was extremely unfavourable to this
See also:species of literature . Sir
See also:Sedley, Aphra Behn and Congreve published eclogues, and the Pastoral
See also:Dialogue between Thirsis and Strephon of the first-mentioned was much admired . All of these, however, are in the highest degree insipid and unreal, and partook of the extreme artificiality of the age . Pastoral came into fashion again early in the 18th century . The controversy in the
See also:Guardian, the famous critique on
See also:Ambrose Philips's Pastorals, the anger and rivalry of
See also:Pope, and the doubt which must always exist as to
See also:share in the mystification, give 1708 a considerable importance in the
See also:annals of bucolic writing . Pope had written his idylls first, and it was a source of infinite annoyance to him that Philips contrived to precede him in publication . He succeeded in throwing ridicule on Philips, however, and his own pastorals were greatly admired . Yet there was some nature in Philips, and, though Pope is more elegant and faultless, he is not one whit more genuinely bucolic than his rival . A far better writer of pastoral than either is Gay, whose Shepherd's Week was a serious attempt to throw to the winds the ridiculous Arcadian tradition of
See also:nymphs and swains, and to copy Theocritus in his simplicity . Gay was far more successful in executing this pleasing and natural cycle of poems than in writing his pastoral tragedy of
See also:Dione or his " tragi-comico pastoral
See also:farce " of The What d'ye
See also:call it ? (1715) .
He deserves a very high place in the
See also:history of English pastoral on the score of his Shepherd's Week . Swift proposed to Gay that he should write a Newgate pastoral in which the swains and nymphs should talk and warble in
See also:slang . This Gay never did attempt; but a
See also:northern admirer of his and Pope's achieved a veritable and lasting success in
See also:Lowland Scotch, a dialect then considered no less beneath the dignity of verse . Allan
See also:Ramsay's Gentle Shepherd, published in 1725, was the last, and remains the most vertebrate and interesting, bucolic drama produced in Great Britain . It remained a favourite, a
See also:hundred and fifty years after, among Lowland reapers and milkmaids . With the Gentle Shepherd the
See also:chronicle of pastoral in England practically closes . This is at least the last performance which can be described as a developed eclogue of the school of Tasso and Guarini . It is in
See also:Switzerland that we find the next important revival .of pastoral properly so-called . The taste of the 18th century was very agreeably tickled by the religious idylls of Salomon
See also:Gessner, who died in 1787 . His Daphnis and Phillis and Der
See also:Tod Abels were read and imitated throughout Europe . In German literature they left but little mark, but in France they were cleverly copied by
See also:Arnaud Berquin . A much more important pastoral writer is
See also:Clovis de Florian, who began by imitating the Galatea of Cervantes, and continued with an original bucolic romance entitled Estelle .
It has always been noticeable that pastoral is a form of literature which disappears before a breath of ridicule . Neither Gessner nor his follower Abbt were able to survive the
See also:laughter of Herder . Since Florian and Gessner there has been no reappearance of bucolic literature properly so-called . The whole spirit of romanticism was fatal to pastoral . Voss in his Luise and Goethe in Hermann and Dorothea replaced it by poetic scenes from homely and simple life .
See also:Half a century later something like pastoral reappeared in a totally new form, in the fashion for Dorfgeschichten . About 183o the Danish poet S . S .. Blicher, whose work connects the grim studies of
See also:Crabbe with the milder modern
See also:strain of pastoral, began to publish his studies of out-
See also:door romance among the poor in
See also:Jutland . Immermann followed in Germany with his novel Der Oberhof in 1839 .
See also:Auerbach, who has given to the 19th-century idyll its peculiar character, began to publish his Schwarzwalder Dorfgeschichten in 1843 . Meanwhile George Sand was writing Jeanne in 1844, which was followed by La
See also:Mare an Diable and
See also:Francois le Champi, and in England Clough produced in 1848 his remarkable long-vacation pastoral The Bothie of Tober-na-Vuolich .
It seems almost certain that these writers followed a simultaneous but
See also:independent impulse in this curious return to bucolic life, in which, however, in every case, the old tiresome conventionality and affectation of
See also:lady-like airs and graces were entirely dropped . This school of writers was presently enriched in Norway by
See also:Bjornson, whose Synnove Solbakken was the first of an exquisite series of pastoral romances . But perhaps the best of all modern pastoral romances is Fritz Reuter's Ut mine Stromtid, written in the
See also:Mecklenburg dialect of German . In England the
See also:Dorsetshire poems of William
See also:Barnes and the Dorsetshire novels of Thomas
See also:Hardy belong to the same class . It will be noticed, of course, that all these
See also:recent productions have so much in
See also:common with the literature which is produced around them that they almost evade
See also:classification . It is conceivable that some poet, in following the antiquarian tendency of the age, may enshrine his
See also:fancy once more in the five acts of a pure pastoral drama of the school of Tasso and Fletcher, but any great vitality in pastoral is hardly to be looked for in the future . (E .
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