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GEORGE PEABODY (1795-1869)

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Originally appearing in Volume V21, Page 4 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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GEORGE PEABODY (1795-1869), American philanthropist, expression, addressed himself to the law of war as the positive was descended from an old yeoman family of Hertfordshire, part of international jurisprudence and dealt only with peace England, named Pabody or Pebody. He was born in the part as its negative alternative. The very name of his historic of Danvers which is now Peabody, Mass., on the 18th of February treatise, De jure belli ac pacis (1625), shows the subordination 1795. When eleven years old he became apprentice at a of peace to the main subject of war. In our own time peace has grocery store. At the end of four years he became assistant to attained a higher status. It is now customary among writers his brother, and a year afterwards to his uncle, who had a on international law to give peace at any rate a volume to itself. business in Georgetown, District of Columbia. After serving as a Peace in fact has become t separate branch of the subject. The volunteer at Fort Warburton, Maryland, in the War of 1812, he rise of arbitration as a method of settling international difficulties became partner with Elisha Riggs in a dry goods store at George- has carried it a step further, and now the Hague Peace Con-town, Riggs furnishing the capital, while Peabody was manager. ventions have given pacific methods a standing apart from war, Through his energy and skill the business increased with astound- and the preservation of peace has become an object of direct ing rapidity, and on the retirement of Riggs about 183o Peabody political effort. The methods for ensuring such preservation found himself at the head of one of the largest mercantile con- are now almost as precise as the methods of war. However cerns in the world. About 1837 he established himself in London reluctant some states may be to bind themselves to any rules as merchant and money-broker at Wanford Court, in the city, excluding recourse to brute force when diplomatic negotiations and in 1843 he withdrew from the American business. The have failed, they have nevertheless unanimously at the Hague number of his benefactions to public objects was very large. Conference of 1907 declared their " firm determination to co-He gave £50,000 for educational purposes at Danvers; £200,000 operate in the maintenance of general peace " (la ferme volonte to found and endow a scientific Institute, in Baltimore; various de concourir au maintien de la paix generale)1, and their resolution sums to Harvard University; £700,000 to the trustees of the " to favour with all their efforts the amicable settlement of Peabody Educational Fund to promote education in the international conflicts " (preamble to Peace Convention). The southern states; and £500,000 for the erection of dwelling-houses offer of mediation by independent powers is provided for (Peace for the working-classes in London. He received from Queen Convention: art. 3), and it is specifically agreed that in matters Victoria the offer of a baronetcy, but declined it. In 1867 the of a " legal character " such as " questions of interpretation and United States Congress awarded him a special vote of thanks. application " of international conventions, arbitration is the He died in London on the 4th of November 1869; his body " most efficacious and at the same time most equitable method " was carried to America in a British warship, and was buried of settling differences which have not been solved by diplomacy in his native town. (Peace Convention: art. 38). In the final act, the conference See the Life (Boston, 1870) by Phebe A. Hanaford. went farther in agreeing to the " principle of compulsory arbi-
End of Article: GEORGE PEABODY (1795-1869)
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I have a George Peabody glass milk jug in perfect condition and would like to know what is it's value? All I know is that it belonged to my grandmother and considering that my own mother is 99,I know that it is quite old.
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