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PENNSYLVANIA GOVERNORS

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Originally appearing in Volume V21, Page 114 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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PENNSYLVANIA GOVERNORS. Under Dutch Rule (1624-1664).' Cornelis Jacobsen Mey Director . . 1624-1625 William van Hulst 1625-1626 Peter Minuit . . . . Governor . 1626-1632 David Pieterzen de Vries . . . „ 1632-1633 Wouter van Twiller 1633-1638 William Kieft 1638-1647 Peter Stuyvesant - 1647-1664 Under Swedish Rule (1638-1655).2 Peter Minuit 1638-164r Peter Hollender 1641-1642 John Printz 1642-1653 John Pappegoya 1653-1654 John Claude Rysingh 1654-1655 Under the Duke of York (1664-1673). Richard Nicolls 1664-1667 Robert Carr . . . Deputy 1664-1667 Robert Needham . Commander on the Delaware 1664-1668 Francis Lovelace . . 1667-1673 John Carr . . . . Commander on the Delaware 1668-1673 Under Dutch Rule (1673-1674). Anthony Colve 1673-1674 Peter Alrichs Deputy on the Delaware 1673-1674 Under the Duke of York (1674-1681). Sir Edmund Andros 1674-1681 Under the Proprietors (1681-1693). William Markham . . . . Deputy-Governor . 1681-1682 William Penn . . . . 1682-1684 Thomas Lloyd President of the Council 1684-1686 Thomas Lloyd Robert Turner Arthur Cook John Simcock John Eckley John Blackwell 1 Governors of New Netherland and of the Dutch settlements on the Delaware. 3 The Swedish colonies on the Delaware conquered by the Dutch In 1655. Thomas Lloyd .. . President of the Council 169o-1691 Thomas Lloyd . . . Deputy-Governor . 1691-1693 William Markham 3 . . 1691-1693 Under the Crown (1693-1695). Benjamin Fletcher . . . . . . . 1693-1695 William Markham . . . . Deputy-Governor . 1693-1695 Under the Proprietors (1695-1776). William Markham Deputy-Governor . 1695-1699 William Penn 1699-1701 Andrew Hamilton Deputy-Governor . 1701-1703 Edward Shippen . . . . President of the Council 1703-1704 John Evans .. . Lieutenant-Governor 1704-1709 Charles Gookin .. „ 1709-1717 Sir William Keith . 1717-1726 Patrick Gordon . .. „ 1726-1736 James Logan President of the Council 1736-1738 George Thomas Deputy-Governor 1738-1747 Anthony Palmer . President of the Council 1747-1748 James Hamilton . Lieutenant-Governor 1748-1754 Robert H. Morris Deputy-Governor . 1754-1756 William Denny . ,, 1756-1759 James Hamilton „ 1759-1763 John Penn . 1763-1771 James Hamilton . President of the Council 1771 Richard Penn . . Lieutenant-Governor 1771-1773 John Penn . 1773-1776 Period of Statehood (1776- ). Benjamin Franklin, Chairman of the Committee of Safety 1776-1777 Thomas Wharton, Jr. . President of the Council 1777-1778 George Bryan " . Acting President of the Council 1777 Joseph Reed .. President of the Council 1778-1781 William Moore .. 1781-1782 John Dickinson . 1782-1785 Benjamin Franklin . 1785-1788 Thomas Mifflin . . 1788-1790 Thomas Mifflin . . Federalist . . 1790-1799 Thomas McKean . Democratic-Republican 1799-1808 Simon Snyder . 1808-1817 William Finley . 1817-182o Joseph Heister . 182o-1823 John A. Shulze . 1823-1829 George Wolf Democrat . 1829-1835 Joseph Ritner Anti-Masonic 1835-1839 D. R. Porter Democrat . 1839-1845 F. R. Shunk 1845-1848 W. F. Johnston s Whig 1848 1852 William Bigler . Democrat 1852-1855 James Pollock . 1855-1858 W. F. Packer 1858-1861 A. G. Curtin Republican . 1861-1867 John W. Geary . I$67-1873 John F. Hartranft . 1873-1879 Henry M. Hoyt 1879 1883 Robert E. Pattison Democrat . 1883-1887 James A. Beaver Republican 1887-1891 Robert E. Pattison . Democrat . 1891-1895 Daniel H. Hastings Republican 1$95-1899 William A. Stone ,, 1899-1903 Samuel W. Pennypacker 1903 1907 Edwin S. Stuart . . . 1907-1911 John K. Tener . . . „ 1911- For the administration of the state see: The Constitution of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, adopted December 16, 1873, amended November 5, 1901 (Harrisburg, 1902) ; S. George et at. (editors), Laws, of Pennsylvania, 1682-1 goo, preceded by the Duke of York's Laws, 1676-1682 (Harrisburg, 1879) ; A. J. Dallas (editor), Laws of Pennsylvania, 17oo-18o1 (Philadelphia and Lancaster, 1797-1801); Laws of the General Assembly of Pennsylvania 3 Lloyd was deputy-governor of the province, the present state of Pennsylvania; Markham of the lower counties, the present state of Delaware. ' The state was governed by a supreme executive council in 1777-1i90. ' Governor Shunk resigned in July 1848 and was succeeded by W. F. Johnston, president of the state senate. Executive Commissioners 1686-1688 . Deputy-Governor . 1688-1690 of these buildings is the law school, between Chestnut and Sansom Streets, on 34th Street. In a great triangular block bounded by Woodland Avenue, Spruce Street, and 34th Street are: the university library, which had in 1009 about 275,000 bound volumes and 50,000 pamphlets, including the Biddle Memorial law library (1886) of 40,000 volumes, the Colwell and Henry C. Carey collections in finance and economics, the Francis C. Macauley library of Italian, Spanish and Portuguese authors, with an excellent Dante collection, the classical library of Ernst von Leutsch of Gottingen, the philological library of F. A. Pott of Halle, the Germanic library of R. Bechstein of Rostock, the Semitic library of C. P. Caspari of Copenhagen, the (Hebrew and Rabbinical) Marcus Jastrow Memorial library, the ethnological library of D. G. Brinton, and several special medical collections; College Hall, with the university offices; Howard Houston Hall (1896) the students' club; Logan Hall; the Robert Hare chemical laboratory; and (across 36th Street) the Wistar institute of anatomy and biology. Immediately east of this triangular block are: Bennett House; the Randal Morgan laboratory of physics; the engineering building (1906); the laboratory of hygiene (1892); dental hall; and the John Harrison laboratory of chemistry. Farther east are the gymnasium, training quarters and Franklin (athletic) field, with brick grand-stands. South of Spruce Street are: the free museum of science and art (1899), the north-western part of a projected group, with particularly valuable American, Egyptian, Semitic and Cretan collections, the last two being the results in part of university excavations at Nippur (1888-1902) and at Gournia (1901-1904); between 34th and 36th Streets the large and well-equipped university hospital (1874); large dormitories, consisting in 1909, of 29 distinct but connected houses; medical laboratories; a biological hall and vivarium; and across Woodland Avenue, a veterinary hall and hospital. The university contains various departments, including the college (giving degrees in arts, science, biology, music, architecture, &c.), the graduate school (1882), a department of law (founded in 1790 and re-established in 185o) and a department of medicine (first professor, 1756; first degrees granted, 1768), the oldest and probably the most famous medical school in America. Graduation from the school of arts in the college is dependent on the successful completion of 6o units of work (the unit is one hour's work a week for a year in lectures or recitations or two hours' work a week for a year in laboratory courses); this may be done in three, four or five years;of the 6o counts: 22 must be required in studies (chemistry, 2 units; English, 6; foreign languages, 6; history, logic and ethics, mathematics, and physics, 2 each); 18 must be equally distributed in two or three " groups "—the 19 groups include astronomy, botany, chemistry, economics, English, fine arts, French, geology, German, Greek, history, Latin, mathematics, philosophy, physics, political science, psychology, sociology and zoology; and in the remaining 20 units the student's election is practically free. Special work in the senior year of the college counts 8 units for the first year's work in the department of medicine. College scholar-ships are largely local, two being in the gift of the governor of the state, fifty being for graduates of the public schools of the city of Philadelphia, and five being for graduates of Pennsylvania public schools outside Philadelphia; in 1909 there were twenty-eight scholarships in the college not local. In the graduate school there are five fellowships for research, each with an annual stipend of $800, twenty-one fellowships valued at $500 each, for men only, and five fellowships for women, besides special fellowships and 39 scholarships. The corporation of the university is composed of a board of
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