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UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA

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Originally appearing in Volume V21, Page 115 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA, an American institution twenty-four trustees, of which the governor of Pennsylvania is ex-officio president. The directing head of the university, and the head of the university faculty and of the faculty of each department is the provost—a title rarely used in American universities; the provost is president pro tempore of the board of trustees. In 1908-1909 the university had 454 officers of instruction, of whom 220 were in the college and 157 in the department (Philadelphia, 18o1 sqq. and Harrisburg, 1802 sqq.) ; and The Statutes at Large of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, 1896 sqq.), published under an act of 1887. Some valuable information is to be found in B. A. and M. L. Hinsdale, History and Civil Government of Pennsylvania ... (Chicago, 1899) ; and in the various editions of Smull's Legislative Handbook and Manual. For the history of penal and charitable institutions, see the Annual Reports of the Board of Commissioners of Public Charities (Harrisburg, 1871 sqq.); the Annual Reports of the Committee on Lunacy (Harrisburg, 1883 sqq.) ; and Amos H. Mylin, Penal and Charitable Institutions of Pennsylvania (2 vols., Harrisburg, 1897), an official publication, well written and handsomely illustrated. For educational history, see N. C. Schaeffer, The Common School Laws of Pennsylvania (Harrisburg, 1904) ; B. A. Hinsdale, Documents Illustrative of American Educational History (Washington, 1895) ; and J. P. Wickersham, History of Education in Pennsylvania (Lancaster, 1886), one of the best state histories of education. For finance and banking, see the annual reports of the state treasurer, auditor-general, sinking fund commissioners, and the commissioner of banking, all published at Harrisburg; An Historical Sketch of the Paper Money of Pennsylvania, by a member of the Numismatic Society of Philadelphia (Philadelphia, 1862) ; and B. M. Mead, A Brief Review of the Financial History of Pennsylvania. .. to the Present Time (1682-1881) (Harrisburg, 1881). The only complete history of the entire period is Howard M. Jenkins, et al., Pennsylvania, Colonial and Federal (3 vols., Philadelphia, 1903). This is especially valuable for the detailed histories of gubernatorial administrations from 1790 to 1903. The third volume contains useful chapters on education, the judiciary, the medical profession, journalism, military affairs, internal improvements, &c. S. G. Fisher, Pennsylvania, Colony and Commonwealth (Philadelphia, 1897) contains the best short account of the colonial and revolutionary history, but it gives only a very brief summary of the period since 1783. W. R. Shepherd, History of Proprietary Government in Pennsylvania (New York, 1896), a detailed study of the proprietary from the political, governmental and territorial points of view, is scholarly, and gives a good account of the boundary disputes with Maryland, Virginia, New York and Connecticut. Among the older standard works are Samual Hazard, Annals .of Pennsylvania from the Discovery of the Delaware, 1609-1682 (Phila- delphia, 185o), an elaborate account of the early Dutch and Swedish, settlements on the Delaware river and bay; and Robert Proud, History of the Pennsylvania from 1681 until after the year 1742 (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1797-1798), written from the Quaker standpoint. For early literary history, see M. K. Jackson, Outline of the Literary History of Colonial Pennsylvania (New York, 1908). W. H. Egle, Illustrated History of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (Harris- burg, 1877), contains trustworthy histories of individual counties by various writers. J. B. McMaster and F. D. Stone, Pennsylvania and the Federal Constitution, 1787-1788 (Philadelphia, 1888), is a useful work. For the anti-Masonic movement, see Charles McCarthy, The Anti-Masonic Party (Washington, 1903). S. G. Fisher, The Making of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, 1896), introductory to the same author's Colony and Commonwealth, is an interesting study of the various nationalities and religions represented among the settlers of the state. For the period of Quaker predominance (1681-1756), see Isaac Sharpless, History of Quaker Government in Pennsylvania (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1898-1899). See also J. Taylor Hamilton's " History of the Moravian Church " (Nazareth, Pa., 1900), vol. vi. of the Transactions of the Moravian Historical Society; Proceedings and Addresses of the Pennsylvania German Society, vols. vii. and viii. (Reading, 1897-1898) ; J. F. Sachse, German Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania, 1694-1708 (Philadelphia, 1895), and German Sectarians of Pennsylvania, 1708-1800 (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1899-1901). The chief sources are the Pennsylvania Archives (first series, 12 vols., Philadelphia, 1852-1856; second series, 19 vols., Harrisburg, 1874-1893; and third series, 4 vols., Harrisburg, 1894-1895) ; Colonial Records, 1683-1790 (16 vols., Philadelphia, 1852); and Samuel Hazard, Register of Pennsylvania (16 vols., Philadelphia, 1828-1836). The Pennsylvania Historical Society, organized in Philadelphia in 1825, has published 14 vols. of Memoirs (1826-1895), a Bulletin of 13 numbers (1845-1847), one volume of Collections (1853), and the Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, a Quarterly (1877 sqq.). There is a good account of the public archives, both printed and manuscript, in the first report of the Public Archives Commission of the American Historical Association, published in vol. ii. of the annual report of the association for the year 1900 (Washington, 1901). of higher learning, in Philadelphia, occupying about 6o acres, near the west bank of the Schuylkill river, north-east of the Philadelphia Hospital, east of 39th Street, south-east of Woodland Avenue, and south of Chestnut Street. In this irregular area are all the buildings except the Flower Astronomical Observatory (1896), which is 2 M. beyond the city limits on the West Chester Pike. The northernmost of medicine, and an enrolment of 4570 students, of whom 2989 I the college in England about £6goo; and in 1764 his influence were in the college (412 in the school of arts; 987 in the Towne had become so strong that it was feared that the college would become sectarian. The Penns and others deprecated this and the trustees bound themselves (1764) to " use their utmost endeavours that . . . (the original plan) be not narrowed, nor the members of the Church of England, nor those dissenting from them . . . be put on any worse footing in this seminary than they were at the time of receiving the royal brief." From September 1777 to June 1778 college exercises were not held because Philadelphia was occupied by British troops. In 1779 the state legislature, on the ground that the trustees' declaration in 1764 was a " narrowing of the foundation," 1 confiscated the rights and property of the college and chartered a new corporation " the Trustees of the University of the State of Pennsylvania "; in 1789 the college was restored to its rights and property and Smith again became its provost; in 1791 the college and the university of the State of Pennsylvania were united under the title, " the University of Pennsylvania," whose trustees were elected from their own members by the board of trustees of the college and that of the university. In 1802 the university purchased new grounds on Ninth Street, between Market and Chestnut, where the post office building now is; there until 1829 the university occupied the building erected for the administrative mansion of the president of the United States; there new buildings were erected after 1829; and from these the university removed to its present site in 1872. The provosts have been: in 1755-1779 and in 1789-1803, William Smith; in 1779-1791, of the university of the state of Pennsylvania, John Ewing (1732-1802); in 1807-1810, John McDowell (1750-1820); in 1810—1813,John Andrews (1746-1813); in 1813-1828, Frederick Beasley (1777-1845); in 1828-1833, William Heathcote De Lancey (1797-1865); in 1834-1853, John Ludlow (1793-1857); in 18J4-1859, Henry Vethake (1792-1866) ; in 186o-1868, Daniel Raynes Goodwin (1811-189o) ; in 1868-188o, Charles Janeway Stille (1819-1899); in 1881-1894, William Pepper (1843-1898); in 1894-191o, Charles Custis Harrison (b. 1844), and in 1911 sqq. Edgar Fahs Smith (b. 1856). scientific school; 472 in the Wharton school, and 253 in the evening school of accounts and finance; 384 in courses for teachers; and 481 in the summer school), 353 in the graduate school, 327 in the department of law, 559 in the department of medicine, 385 in the department of dentistry, and 150 in the department of veterinary medicine. In August 1907 the excess of the university's assets over its liabilities was $13,239,408 and the donations for the year were $305,814. A very large proportion of the university's investments is in real estate, especially in Philadelphia. In 1907 the total value of real estate (including the university buildings) was $6,829,154; and libraries, museums, apparatus and furniture were valued at $2,025,357. Students' tuition fees vary from $150 to $too a year in the college; and are $16o in the department of law, $200 in the department of medicine, $15o in the department of dentistry and $loo in the department of veterinary science. The income from tuition fees in 1906—1907 was $458,396; the payments for " educational salaries " amounted to $433,311, and for " administration salaries " to $135,314. The university publishes the following series: Astronomical Series (1899 sqq.); Contributions from the Botanical Laboratory (1892 sqq.) ; Contributions from the Laboratory of Hygiene (1898 sqq.) ; Contributions from the Zoological Laboratory 893 sqq.); Series in History (1901 sqq.); Series in Mathematics (1897 sqq.); Series in Philology and Literature (1891 sqq.); Series in Romanic Languages and Literatures (1907 sqq.); Series in Philosophy (1890 sqq.); Series in Political Economy and Public Law (1885 sqq.) ; The American Law Register (1852 sqq.); The University of Pennsylvania Medical Bulletin (1888 sqq.) ; Transactions of the Department of Archaeology (19o4 sqq.) ; the Journal of Morphology (1887 ,sqq.) ; and Transactions and Proceedings of the Botanical Society of lfennsylvania (1897 sqq.). There are also occasional publications by institutes and departments connected with the university. Student publications include: a daily, The Pennsylvanian (1885); the weekly, Old Penn (1902); a comic monthly, The Punch Bowl; a literary monthly, The Red and Blue; a quarterly of the department of dentistry, The Penn Dental Journal; an annual, The Record; and The Alumni Register (1896), a monthly. Benjamin Franklin in 1749 published a pamphlet, entitled Proposals Relating to the Education of Youth in Pensilvania, which led to the formation of a board of twenty-four trustees, nineteen of whom, on the 13th of November 1749, met for organization and to promote " the Publick Academy in the City of Philadelphia," and elected Benjamin Franklin president of the board, an office which he held until 1756. So closely was Franklin identified with the plan that Matthew Arnold called the institution " the University of Franklin." On the 1st of February 1750 there was conveyed to this board of trustees the " New Building " on Fourth Street, near Arch, which had been erected in 1740 for a charity school—a use to which it had not been put—and as a " house of Publick Worship," in which George Whitefield had preached in November 1740; the original trustees (including Franklin) of the " New Building " and of its projected charity school date from 1740, and therefore the university attaches to its seal the words " founded 1740." In the " New Building " the academy was opened on the 7th of January 1751, the city having voted £200 in the preceding August for the completion of the building. On the 16th of September 1751 a charitable school " for the instruction of poor Children gratis in Reading, Writing, and Arithmetick " was opened in the " New Building." The proprietaries, Thomas and Richard Penn, incorporated " The Trustees of the Academy and Charitable School in the Province of Pennsylvania " in 17J3; and in 1755 issued a confirmatory charter, changing the corporate name to " The Trustees of the College, Academy and Charitable School," &c., whereupon William Smith (1727-1803) of the university of Aberdeen, who had become rector of the academy in 1752 and had taken orders in the Church of England in 1753, became provost of the college. In 1756 Dr Smith established a complete and liberal curriculum which was adopted by Bishop James Madison in 1777 when he became president of the College of William and Mary. In 1757 the first college class graduated. Under Smith's control the Latin school grew in importance at the expense of the English school, to the great annoyance of Franklin. In 1762-1764 Dr Smith collected for See T. H. Montgomery, A History of the University of Pennsylvania from its Foundation to A.D. 2770 (Philadelphia, 1900) ; George B. Wood, Early History of the University of Pennsylvania (3rd ed., ibid., 1896) ; J. B. McMaster, The University of Pennsylvania (ibid. 1897) ; G. E. Nitzsche, Official Guide to the University of Pennsylvania (ibid., 1906); and Edward P. Cheyney, " University of Pennsylvania," in vol. i. of Universities and their Sons (Boston, 1901).
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