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Originally appearing in Volume V21, Page 138 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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JOSE MARIA DE PEREDA (1833—1906), one of the most and Muergo in Sotileza, Pedro Juan and Pilara in La Puchera; distinguished of modern Spanish novelists, was born at Polanco and he personified the tumult and calm of the sea with more near Santander on the 6th of February 1833. He was educated power than Victor Hugo displayed in Les Travailleurs de la at the Instituto Cantabro of Santander, whence he went in mer. His descriptive powers were of the highest order, and 1852 to Madrid, where he studied with the vague purpose of his style, pure of all affectations and embellishments, is of singular entering the artillery corps. Abandoning this design after force and suppleness. With all his limitations, he was as three years' trial, he returned home and began his literary career original a genius as Spain produced during the 19th century. by contributing articles to a local journal, La Abeja montanesa (J. F: K.) in 1858. He also wrote much in a weekly paper, El Tio Cayetan, PERE DAVID'S DEER, the mi-lou of the Chinese, an aberrant and in 1864 he collected his powerful realistic sketches of local life and strangely mule-like deer (q.v.), the first evidence of whose and manners under the title of Escenas montanesas. Pereda existence was made known in Europe by the Abbe (then Pere) fought against the revolution of 1868 in El Tio Cayetan, writing David, who in 1865 obtained the skin of a specimen from the the newspaper almost single-handed. In 1871 he was elected as herd kept at that time in the imperial park at Pekin. This the Carlist deputy for Cabuerniga. In this same year he pub- skin, with the skull and antlers, was sent to Paris, where it was lished a second series of Escenas montanesas under the title of described in 1866 by Professor Milne-Edwards. In lacking a brow-Tipos y paisajes; and in 1876 appeared Bocetos al temple, three tales, in one of which the author describes his disenchanting political experiences. The Tipos trashumantes belongs to the year 1877, as does El Buey suelto, which was intended as a reply tine, and dividing in a regular fork-like manner some distance above the burr, the large and cylindrical antlers of this species conform to the general structural type characteristic of the American deer. The front prong of the main fork, however, curves somewhat torward and again divides at least once; while the hind prong is of great length undivided, and directed back-wards in a manner found in no other deer. As regards general form, the most distinctive feature is the great relative length of the tail, which reaches the hocks, and is donkey-like rather than deer-like in form. The head is long and narrow, with a prominent ridge for the support of the antlers, moderate-sized ears, and a narrow and pointed muzzle. A gland and tuft are present on the skin of the outer side of the upper part of the hind cannon-bone; but, unlike American deer, there is no gland on the inner side of the hock. Another feature by which this species differs from the American deer is the conformation of the bones of the lower part of the fore.-leg, which have the same structure as in the red deer group. The coat is of moderate length, but the hair on the neck and throat of -the old stags is elongated to form a mane and fringe. Although new-born fawns are spotted, the adults are in the main uniformly coloured; the general tint of the coat at all seasons being reddish tawny with a more or less marked tendency to grey: It has been noticed at Woburn Abbey that the antlers are shed and replaced twice a year. The true home of this (leer has never been ascertained, and probably never will be; all the few known specimens now living being kept in confinement—the great majority in the duke of Bedford's park at Woburn, Bedfordshire. (R. L.*)
End of Article: JOSE MARIA DE PEREDA (1833—1906)

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