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PERIODICALS

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Originally appearing in Volume V21, Page 154 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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PERIODICALS, a general term for literary publications which appear in numbers, or parts at regular intervals of time—as a rule, weekly, monthly or quarterly. The term strictly includes "newspapers" (q.v.), but in the narrower sense usually intended it is distinguished as a convenient expression for periodical publications which differ from newspapers in not being primarily for the circulation of news or information of ephemeral interest, and in being issued at longer intervals. In modern times the weekly journal has become so much of the nature of a newspaper that it seldom can be called a periodical in this sense. The present article chiefly deals with publications devoted to general literature, literary and critical reviews and magazines for the supply of miscellaneous reading. In the article SOCIETIES (q.v.) an account is separately given of the transactions and proceedings of learned and scientific bodies. Year-books, almanacs, directories and other annuals belong to a distinct type of publication, and are not referred to here. BRITISH The first literary periodical in English was the Mercurius librarius, or a Faithful Account of all Books and Pamphlets (168o), a mere catalogue, published weekly or fortnightly in London, followed by Weekly Memorials for the Ingenious (Jan. 16, 1681–1682 to Jan. 15, 1683), which was more of the type of the Journal des Savants (see under FRANCE below), whence it borrowed many contributions. Of the History of Learning (1691)—another with the same title came out in 1694—only a few numbers appeared, as the conductor, De la Crose, started the monthly Works of the Learned (Aug. 1691 to April 1692), devoted principally to continental scholarship. The monthly Compleal Library (1692 to 1694) was a venture of John Dunton; the monthly Memoirs for the Ingenious (1693), edited by J. de la Crose, ran for 12 months, and another with the same title appeared in the following year, only to enjoy a briefer career. The first periodical of merit and influence was the History of the Works of the Learned (1699–1712), largely consisting of descriptions of foreign books. The Memoirs of Literature, the first English review consisting entirely of original matter, published in London from 1710 to 1714, had for editor Michel de la Roche, a French Protestantrefugee, who also edited at Amsterdam the Bibliotheque angloise (1717–1719), and subsequently Memoires litteraires de la Grande Bretagne (172o-1724). Returning to England in 1725, he recommenced his New Memoirs of Literature (1725–1728), a monthly, and in 1730 a Literary Journal. Dr Samuel Jebb started Bibliotheca literaria (1722-1724), to appear every two months, which dealt with medals and antiquities as well as with literature, but only ten numbers appeared. The Present State of the Republick of Letters was commenced by Andrew Reid in January 1728, and completed in December 1736. It contained not only excellent reviews of English books but papers from the works of foreigners. Two volumes came out each year. It was successful, as also was the Historia literaria (1730-1734) of Archibald Bower.' The Bee, or Universal Weekly Pamphlet (1733–1735) of the unfortunate Eustace Budgell, and the Literary Magazine (1735–1736), with which Ephraim Chambers had much to do, were short-lived. The last named was continued in 1737 as the History of the Works of the Learned, and was carried on without intermission until 1743, when its place was taken by A Literary Journal (Dublin, 1744–1749), the first review published in Ireland. The Museum (1746) of R. Dodsley united the character of a review of books with that of a literary magazine. It came out fortnightly to the 12th of September 1747. Although England can show nothing like the Journal des savants, which has flourished almost without a break for two and a half centuries, a nearly complete series of reviews of English literature may be made up from 1681 to the present day. After the close of the first quarter of the 18th century the literary periodical began to assume more of the style of the modern review, and in 1749 the title and the chief features were united in the Monthly Review, established by Ralph Griffiths,' who conducted it until 1803, whence it was edited by his son down to 1825. It came to an end in 1845. From its commencement the Review dealt with science and literature, as well as with literary criticism. It was Whig in politics and Nonconformist in theology. The first series ran from 1749 to December 1789, 81 vols.; the second from 1790 to 1815, Io8 vols. ; the third or new series from 1826 to 183o, 15 vols. ; and the fourth from 1831 to 1845, 45 vols., when the magazine stopped. There is a general index (1749–1789) 3 vols., and another (1790-1816), 2 vols. The Tory party and the established church were defended in the Critical Review (1756–1817), founded by Archibald Hamilton and supported by Smollett, Dr Johnson and Robertson. Johnson contributed to fifteen numbers of the Literary Magazine (1756–1758). The reviews rapidly increased in number towards the end of the century. Among the principal were the London Review (1775–1780), A New Review (1782–1786), the English Review (1783–1796), incorporated in 1797 with the Analytical Review (1788–1799), the Anti-Jacobin Review and Magazine (1798–1821), and the British Critic (1793–1843), the organ of the High Church party, and first edited by Archdeacon Nares and Beloe. These periodicals had now become extremely numerous, and many of the leading London publishers found it convenient to maintain their own particular organs. It is not a Quarterlies. matter of surprise, therefore, that the authority of the reviews should have fallen somewhat in public estimation. The time was ripe for one which should be quite independent of the booksellers, and which should also aim at a higher standard of excellence. As far back as 1755 Adam Smith, Blair and others had produced an Edinburgh Review which only ran to two numbers, and in 1773 Gilbert Stuart and William Smellie issued during three years an Edinburgh Magazine and Review. To Edinburgh is also due the first high-class critical journal, the Edinburgh Review, established in October 1802 by Jeffrey, Scott, Horner, Brougham and Sydney Smith. It created a new era in periodical criticism, and assumed from the commencement a wider range and more elevated tone than any of its predecessors. The first editor was Sydney Smith, then Jeffrey for many years, and later editors were Macvey Napier, William Empson, Sir G. C. Lewis, Henry Reeve and the Hon. Arthur Elliot. Its buff and blue cover was adopted from the colours of the Whig party whose political principles it advocated. Among its more famous contributors were Lord Brougham, Sir Walter Scott, Carlyle, Hazlitt and Macaulay. Scott, being dissatisfied with the new review, persuaded John Murray, his London publisher, to start its brilliant Tory competitor, the Quarterly Review (Feb. 1809), first edited by William Gifford, then by Sir J. T. Coleridge, and subsequently by J. G. Lockhart, Rev. Whitwell Elwin, W. M. Macpherson, Sir Wm. Smith, Rowland Prothero and G. W. Prothero. Among the contributors in successive years were Canning, Scott (who reviewed himself), Robert Southey, ' Archibald Bower (1686–1766) was educated at Douai, and became a Jesuit. He subsequently professed himself a convert to the Anglican Church, and published a number of works, but was more esteemed for his ability than for his moral character. 2 The biographers of Goldsmith have made us familiar with the name of Griffiths (1720-1803), the prosperous publisher, with his diploma of LL.D. granted by an American university, and with the quarrels between him and the poet. 152 Sir John Barrow, J. Wilson Croker, Isaac Disraeli, A. W. Kinglake, Lord Salisbury and W. E. Gladstone.' The Westminster Review (1824), established by the followers of Jeremy Bentham, advocated radical reforms in church, state and legislation. In 1836 it was joined to the London Review (1829), founded by Sir William Moles-worth, and then bore the name of the London and Westminster Review till 1851, when it returned to the original title. Other quarterly reviews worth mentioning are the Eclectic Review (1805–1868), edited down to 1834 by Josiah Conder (1789–1855) and supported by the Dissenters; the British Review (1811–1825; the Christian Remembrancer (1819–1868); the Retrospective Review (182o–1826, 1828, 1853–1854), for old books; the Foreign Quarterly Review (1827–1846), afterwards incorporated with the Westminster; the Foreign Review (1828–1829); the Dublin Review (1836), a Roman Catholic organ; the Foreign and Colonial Quarterly Review (1843--1847) ; the Prospective Review (1845–1855), given up to theology and literature, previously the Christian Teacher (1835–1844); the North British Review (1844–1871); the British Quarterly Review (1845), successor to the British and Foreign Review (1835–1844); the New Quarterly Review (1852–1861), the Scottish Review (1853–1862), published at Glasgow; the Wesleyan London Quarterly Review (1853– ); the National Review (1855–1864); the Diplomatic Review (1855–1881); the Irish Quarterly Review (1851–1859), brought out in Dublin; the Home and Foreign Review (1862–1864); the Fine Arts Quarterly Review (1863–1865); the New Quarterly Magazine (1873–188o) ; the Catholic Union Review (1863–1874) ; the Anglican Church Quarterly Review (1875) ; Mind (1876), dealing with mental philosophy; the Modern Review (188o–1884); the Scottish Review (1882) ; the Asiatic Quarterly Review (1886; since 1891 the Imperial and Asiatic Quarterly Review) ; and the Jewish Quarterly Review. The monthly reviews include the Christian Observer (1802–1857), conducted by members of the established church upon evangelical principles, with Zachary Macaulay as the first editor; Monthlies. and the Monthly Repository (1806–1837), originally purely theological, but after coming into the hands of the Rev. W. J. Fox made entirely literary and political. The Fortnightly Review (1865), edited successively by G. H. Lewes, John Morley, T. H. S. Escott, Frank Harris, Oswald Crawfurd and W. L. Courtney, was intended as a kind of English Revue des deux mondes. Since 1866 it has appeared monthly. The Contemporary Review (1866), long edited by Sir Percy Bunting, and the Nineteenth Century (1877), founded and edited by Sir James Knowles (q.v.), and renamed Nineteenth Century and After in 1900, are similar in character, consisting of signed articles by men of mark of all opinions upon questions of the day. The National Review (1883), edited successively by Alfred Austin, W. Earl Hodgson, and L. J. Maxse, is alone in taking editorially a pronounced party line in politics as a Conservative organ. Modern Thought (1879–1884), for the free discussion of political, religious and social subjects, and the Modern Review (1892–1894) may also be mentioned. Other monthlies are the Indian Magazine (1871); the Irish Monthly (Dublin, 1873); the Gaelic Journal (Dublin, 1882); the African Review (1892) and the Empire Review (1900). The Monthly Review (19o0–19o8), edited till 1904 by Henry Newbolt, was for some years a notable addition to the high class literary monthlies. The weekly reviews dealing generally with literature, science and art are the Literary Gazette (1817–1862), first edited by William Jerdan; the Athenaeum (1828), founded by fames Silk Weeklies. Buckingham, but successfully established by C. W. Dilke, and long edited in later years by Norman MacColl (1843–1904), and afterwards by Mr Vernon Rendall; and the Academy (1869). Among those which also include political and social topics, and are more particularly dealt with under NEWSPAPERS, may be mentioned, the Examiner (i8o8–i881), the Spectator (1828), the Saturday Review (1855), the Scots or National Observer (1888–1897), Outlook (1898), Pilot (1900-1903), and Speaker (1890), which became the Nation. Soon after the introduction of the literary journal in England, one of a more familiar tone was started by the eccentric John Dunton in the Athenian Gazette, or Casuistical Mercury, resolving all the most Nice and Curious Questions (1689–1690 to 1695–1696), afterwards called The Athenian Mercury, a kind of forerunner of Notes and Queries, being a penny weekly sheet, with a quarterly critical supplement. In the last part the publisher announces that it will be continued " as soon as ever the glut of news is a little over." Dunton was assisted by Richard Sault and Samuel Wesley. Defoe's Review (1704–1713) dealt chiefly with politics and commerce, but the introduction in it of what its editor fittingly termed the "scandalous club " was another step nearer the papers of Steele and the periodical essayists, the first attempts to create an organized popular opinion in matters of taste and manners. These little papers, rapidly thrown off for a temporary purpose, were destined to form a very important ' The Centenary of the Edinburgh Review was celebrated in an article in October 1902, and that of the Quarterly Review in two articles April and July 1909. See also On the Authorship of the First Hundred Numbers of the Edinburgh Review (1895), by W. A. Copinger, and The First Edinburgh Reviewers in Literary Studies (1879), vol. i., by W. Bagehot.part of the literature of the 18th century, and in some respects its most marked feature. Although the frequenters of the clubs and coffee-houses were the persons for whom the essay-papers were mainly written, a proof of the increasing refinement of the age is to be found in the fact that now for the first time were women specially addressed as part of the reading public. The Taller .was commenced by Richard Steele in 1709, and Tatter, &c. issued thrice a week until 1711. The idea was at once extremely popular, and a dozen similar papers were started within the year, at least one half bearing colourable imitations of the title. Addison contributed to the Taller, and together with Steele established and carried on the Spectator (1710–1714), and subsequently the Guardian (1713). The newspaper tax enforced in 1712 dealt a hard blow at these. Before this time the daily issue of the Spectator had reached 3000 copies; it then fell to 1600; the price was raised from a penny to twopence, but the paper came to an end in 1714. Dr Drake (Essays illustr. of the Rambler, &c., ii. 490) drew up an imperfect list of the essayists, and reckoned that from the Taller to Johnson's Rambler, during a period of forty-one years, 106 papers of this description were published. Dr Drake continued the list down to 1809, and described altogether 221 which had appeared within a hundred years. The following is a list of the most consider-able, with their dates, founders and chief contributors: Taller (April 12, 1709 to Jan. 2, 1710–1711), Steele, Addison, Swift, Hughes, &c. ; Spectator (March 1, 1710–1711 to Dec. 20, 1714), Addison, Steele, Budgell, Hughes, Grove, Pope, Parnell, Swift, &c.; Guardian (March 12, 1713 to Oct. 1, 1713), Steele, Addison, Berkeley, Pope, Tickell, Budgell, &c.; Rambler (March 20, 1750 to March 14, 1752), Johnson; Adventurer (Nov. 7, 1752 to March 9, 1754), Hawkesworth, Johnson, Bathurst, Warton, Chapone; World (Jan. 4, 1753 to Dec. 30, 1756), E. Moore, earl of Chesterfield, R. O. Cambridge, earl of Orford, Soame Jenyns, &c.; Connoisseur (Jan. 31, 1754 to Sept. 30, 1756), Colman, Thornton, Warton, earl of Cork, &c.; Idler (April 15, 1758 to Aprils, 1760), Johnson, Sir J. Reynolds and Bennet Langton; Bee (Oct. 6, 1759 to Nov. 24, 1759), O. Goldsmith; Mirror (Jan. 23, 1779 to May 27, 1780), Mackenzie, Craig, Abercromby, Home, Bannatyne, &c.; Lounger (Feb. 5, 1785 to Jan. 6, 1787), Mackenzie, Craig, Abercromby, Tytler; Observer (1785 to 1790), Cumberland; Looker-on (March 10, 1792 to Feb. 1, 1794), W. Roberts, Beresford, Chalmers. As from the " pamphlet of news " arose the weekly paper wholly devoted to the circulation of news, so from the general newspaper was specialized the weekly or monthly review of litera- ture, Modern antiquities and science, which, when it included Maderines. essay-papers, made up the magazine or miscellaneous repository of matter for information and amusement. Several monthly publications had come into existence since 1681, but perhaps the first germ of the magazine is to be found in the Gentleman's Journal (1691–1694) of Peter Motteux, which, besides. the news of the month, contained miscellaneous prose and poetry. Dr Samuel Jebb included antiquarian notices as well as literary reviews in his Bibliotheca literaria (1722–1724), previously mentioned, but the Gentleman's Magazine, founded in 1731, fully established, through the tact and energy of the publisher Edward Cave (q.v.), the type of the magazine, from that time so marked a feature of English periodical literature. The first idea is due to Motteux, from whom the title, motto and general plan were borrowed. The chief feature in the new venture at first consisted of the analysis of the journals, which Cave undertook personally. Prizes were offered for poetry. In April 1732 the leading metropolitan publishers, jealous of the interloper Cave, started the London Magazine, or Gentleman's Monthly Intelligencer (1732–1784), which had a long and prosperous career. The new magazine closely copied Cave's title, plan and aspect, and bitter war was long waged between the two. The rivalry was not without benefit to the literary public, as the conductors of each used every effort to improve their own review. Cave introduced the practice of giving engravings, maps and portraits, but his greatest success was the addition of Samuel Johnson . (q.v.) to the regular staff. This took place in 1738, when the latter wrote the preface to the volume for that year, observing that the magazine had " given rise to almost twenty imitations of it, which are either all dead or very little regarded. The plan was also imitated in Denmark, Sweden and Germany. The Gentleman's Magazine was continued by Cave's brother-in-law, David Henry, afterwards by John Nichols and his son.' Cave appears to have been the first 2 The first series of the Gentleman's Magazine or Trader's Monthly Intelligencer, extended from January 1731 to December 1735, 5 vols.; the Gentleman's Magazine and Historical Chronicle from January 1736 to December 1807, vols. 6–77; new series, January 1808 to December 1833, vols. 78–103; new series, 1834–1856, 45 vols.; new (third) series, 1856–1865, 19 vols. ; new (fourth) series, 1866–1868, 5 vols. A general index to the first twenty vols. appeared in 1753. S. Ayscough brought out an index to the first fifty-six vols., 1731–1786 (1789), 2 vols., and one by J. Nichols, 1787–1818 (1821), 2 vols. A complete list of the plates and woodcuts (1731–1813) was published in 1814, and another list (1731–1818), in 1821. The Gentleman's Magazine Library, being a classified collection of the chief contents of the Gentleman's Magazine, from 1731 to 1868, is now being edited by Mr G. L. Gomme (1883, &c., vols. 1–17). adoption of similar departments in a great number of newspapers and periodicals, and, besides several imitators in England, there are now parallel journals in Holland, France, and Italy. Shilling monthlies began with Macmillan (1859), the Cornhill (186o), first edited by Thackeray, and Temple Bar (186o). St James's Magazine (1861), Belgravia (1866), St Paul's (1867-1874), London Society (1862), and Tinsley's (1867) were devoted chiefly to novels and light reading. Sixpenny illustrated magazines commenced with Good Words (186o) and the Quiver (1861), both religious in tendency. In 1882 Fraser changed its name to Longman's Magazine, and was popularized and reduced to sixpence. The Cornhill followed the same example in 1883, reducing its price to sixpence and devoting its pages to light reading. The English Illustrated Magazine (1883) was brought out in competition with the American Harper's and Century. The Pall Mall Magazine followed in 1893. Of the artistic periodicals we may signalize the Art Journal (1849), Portfolio (187o), Magazine of Art (1878-1904), Studio (1893), Connoisseur (1901), and Burlington (1903). The Bookman (1886), for a combination of popular and literary qualities, and the Badminton (1895), for sport, also deserve mention. One of the most characteristic developments of later journalism was the establishment in 1890 of the Review of Reviews by W. T. Stead. Meanwhile the number of cheap periodicals increased enormously, such as the weekly Tit-bits (1881), and Answers (1888), and profusely illustrated magazines appeared, like the Strand (1891), Pearson's (1896), or Windsor (1895). Professions and trades now have not only their general class-periodicals, but a special review or magazine for every section. In 1910 the magazines and reviews published in the United Kingdom numbered 2795. Religious periodicals were 668; 338 were devoted to trade; 361 to sport; 691 represented the professional classes ; 51 agriculture ; and 218 were juvenile periodicals. The London monthlies were 797 and the quarterlies 155. Indexes to English Periodicals.—A large number of periodicals do not preserve literary matter of permanent value, but the high-class reviews and the archaeological, artistic and scientific magazines contain a great mass of valuable facts, so that general and special indexes have become necessary to all literary workers. Lists of the separate indexes to particular series are given in H. B. Wheatley's What is an Index? (1879), W. P. Courtney's Register of National Bibliography (1905, 2 vols.), and the List of Books forming the Reference Library in the reading room of the British Museum (4th ed. 1910, 2 vols). to use the word magazine in the sense of a periodical of miscellaneous literature. The specially antiquarian, biographical and historical features, which make this magazine so valuable a store-house for information for the period it covers, were dropped in 1868, when an " entirely new series," a miscellany of light literature was successively edited by Gowing, Joseph Hatton and Joseph Knight. Many other magazines.were produced in consequence of the success of these two. It will be sufficient to mention the following: The Scots Magazine (1739-1817) was the first published in Scotland; from 1817 to 1826 it was styled the Edinburgh Magazine. The Universal Magazine (1747) had a short, if brilliant, career; but the European Magazine, founded by James Perry in 1782, lasted down to 1826. Of more importance than these, or than the Royal Magazine (1759-1771) was the Monthly Magazine (1796-1843), with which Priestley and Godwin were originally connected. During thirty years the Monthly was conducted by Sir Richard Phillips, under whom it became more statistical and. scientific than literary. Class magazines were represented by the Edinburgh Farmer'.s Magazine (1800-1825) and the Philosophical Magazine (1798), established in London by Alexander Tilloch; the latter at first consisted chiefly of translations of scientific articles from the French. The following periodicals, all of which date from the 18th century, are still published: the Gospel Magazine (1766, with which is incorporated the British Protestant), the Wesleyan Methodist Magazine (1778), Curtis's Botanical Magazine (1786), Evangelical Magazine (1793; since 1905 the Evangelical British Missionary), the Philosophical Magazine (1798), now known as the London, Edinburgh and Dublin Philosophical Magazine. The increased influence of this class of periodical upon public opinion was first apparent in Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, founded in 1817 by the publisher of that name, and carried to a high degree of excellence by the contributions of Scott, Lockhart, Hogg, Maginn, Syme and John Wilson (" Christopher North "), John Galt and Samuel Warren. It has always remained Liberal in literature and Conservative in politics. The New Monthly Magazine is somewhat earlier in date. It was founded in 1814 by the London publisher, Colburn, and was edited in turn by Campbell, Theodore Hook, Bulwer-Lytton and Ainsworth. Many of Carlyle's and Thackeray's pieces first appeared in Fraser's Magazine (183o), long famous for its personalities and its gallery of literary portraits. The Metropolitan Magazine was started in opposition to Fraser, and was first edited by Campbell, who had left its rival. It subsequently came into the hands of Captain Marryatt, who printed in it many of his sea-tales. The British Magazine (1832-1849) included religious and ecclesiastical information. From Ireland came the Dublin University Magazine (1833). The regular price of these magazines was half a crown; the first of the cheaper ones was Tait's Edinburgh Magazine (1832-1861) at a shilling. It was Radical in politics, and had Roebuck as one of its founders. Bentley's Miscellany (1837-1868) was exclusively devoted to novels, light literature and travels. Several of Ainsworth's romances, illustrated by Cruikshank, first saw the light in Bentley. The Nautical Magazine (1832) was addressed specially to sailors, and Colburn's United Service Journal (1829) to both services. The Asiatic Journal (1816) dealt with Oriental subjects. From 1815 to 182o a number of low-priced and unwholesome periodicals flourished. The Mirror (1823-1849), a two-penny Cheat) Pub-illustrated magazine, begun by John Limbird, and as. the Mechanics Magazine (1823) were steps in a better direction. The political agitation of 1831 led to a further popular demand, and a supply of cheap and healthy serials for the reading multitude commenced with Chambers's Journal (1832), the Penny Magazine (1832-1845) of Charles Knight, and the Saturday Magazine (1832-1844), begun by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. The first was published at 1Id. and the last two at Id. Knight secured the best authors and artists of the day to write for and illustrate his magazine, which, though at first a commercial success, may have had the reason of its subsequent discontinuance in its literary excellence. At the end of 1832 it had reached a sale of 200,000 in weekly numbers and monthly parts. It came to an end in 1845 and was succeeded by Knight's Penny Magazine (1845), which was stopped after six monthly parts. These periodicals were followed by a number of penny weeklies of a lower tone, such as the Family Herald (1843), the London Journal (1845) and Lloyd's Miscellany. In 1850 the sale of the first of them was placed at 175,000 copies, the second at 170,000, and Lloyd's at 95,000. In 1846 fourteen penny and three half-penny magazines, twelve social journals, and thirty-seven book-serials were produced every week in London. A further and permanent improvement in cheap weeklies for home reading may be traced from the foundation of Howitt's journal (1847-1849), and more especially Household Words (185o), conducted by Charles Dickens, All the Year Round (1859), by the same editor, and afterwards by his son, Once A Week (1859), and the Leisure Hour (1852). The plan of Notes and Queries (1849), for the purpose of inter-communication among those interested in special points of literary and antiquarian character, has led to the r John Limbird, to whom even before Chambers or Knight is due the carrying out the idea of a cheap and good periodical for the people, died on the 31st of October 1883, without having achieved the worldly prosperity of his two followers.
End of Article: PERIODICALS
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