PERSEPOLIS , an
See also:ancient city of
See also:Persia, situated some 40 M . N.E. of
See also:Shiraz, not far from where the small
See also:river Pulwar flows into the Kur (Kyrus) . The site is marked by a large terrace with its east side leaning on Kuhi Rahmet (" the
See also:Mount of
See also:Grace ") . The other three sides are formed by a retaining
See also:wall, varying in height with the slope of the ground from 14 to 41 ft on the west side a magnificent
See also:stair, of very easy steps, leads to the top . On this terrace are the ruins of a number of
See also:colossal buildings, all constructed of dark-
See also:grey marble from the adjacent
See also:mountain . The stones were laid without
See also:mortar, and many of them are still in situ . Especially striking are the huge pillars, of which a number still stand erect . Several of the buildings were never finished . F . Stolze has shown that in some cases even the
See also:mason's rubbish has not been removed.' These ruins, for which the name Kizil minare or Chihli menare (" the
See also:forty columns or minarets "), can be traced back to the 13th century, are now known as Takhti Jamshid (" the
See also:throne of Jamshid ") . That they represent the Persepolis captured and partly destroyed by
See also:Alexander the
See also:Great has been beyond dispute at least since the
See also:time of Pietro della
See also:Valle .2 Behind Takhti Jamshid are three sepulchres hewn out of the
See also:rock in the hillside, the facades, one of which is incomplete, being richly ornamented with reliefs . About 8 m .
N.N.E., on the opposite side of the Pulwar, rises a perpendicular wall of rock, in which four similar tombs are cut, at a considerable height from the bottom of the valley . The
See also:modern Persians
See also:call this place Nakshi Rustam (" the picture of Rustam ") from the
See also:Sassanian reliefs beneath the opening, which they take to be a
See also:representation of the mythical hero Rustam . That the 'Cf . J . Chardin, E .
See also:Kaempfer, C . Niebuhr and W . Ouseley . Niebuhr's drawings, though
See also:good, are, for the purposes of the architectural student, inferior to the great
See also:work of C . Texier, and still more to that of E . Flandin and P . Coste .
Good sketches, chiefly after Flandin, are given by C . Kossowicz, Inscriptiones palaeopersicae (St
See also:Petersburg, 1872) . In addition to these we have the photographic plates in F . Stolze's Persepolis (2 vols., Berlin, 1882) . z Lettera X V . (ed .
See also:Brighton, 1843), U . 246 seq . occupants of these seven tombs were
See also:kings might be inferred from the sculptures, and one of those at Nakshi Rustam is expressly declared in its inscription to be the
See also:tomb of Darius Hystaspis, concerning whom
See also:Ctesias relates that his
See also:grave was in the
See also:face of a rock, and could only be reached by means of an apparatus of
See also:ropes . Ctesias mentions further, with regard to a number of Persians kings, either that their remains were brought " to the Persians," or that they died there.' Now we know that Cyrus was buried at
See also:Pasargadae (q.v.) and if there is any truth in the statement that the
See also:body of Cambyses was brought home " to the Persians " his burying-place must be sought somewhere beside that of his
See also:father . In
See also:order to identify the
See also:graves of Persepolis we must bear in mind that Ctesias assumes that it was the
See also:custom for a
See also:king to prepare his own tomb during his lifetime . Hence the kings buried at Nakshi Rustam are probably, besides Darius,
See also:Xerxes I.,
See also:Artaxerxes I. and Darius II .
Xerxes II., who reigned for a very
See also:short time, could scarcely have obtained so splendid a
See also:monument, and still less could the usurper Sogdianus (Secydianus) . The two completed graves behind Takhti Jamshid would then belong to Artaxerxes II. and Artaxerxes III . The unfinished one is perhaps that of Arses, who reigned at the longest two years, or, if not his, then that of Darius III . (Codomannus), who is one of those whose bodies are said to have been brought " to the Persians "2 (see ARCHITECTURE, fig . 12) . Another small
See also:group of ruins in the same
See also:style is found at the
See also:village of Hajjiabad, on the Pulwar, a good
See also:hour's walk above Takhti Jamshid . These formed a single
See also:building, which was still intact 900 years ago, and was used as the mosque of the then existing city of Istakhr . Since Cyrus was buried in Pasargadae, which moreover is mentioned in Ctesias as his own city,' and since, to
See also:judge from the inscriptions, the buildings of Persepolis commenced with Darius I., it was probably under this king, with whom the
See also:sceptre passed to a new branch of the royal
See also:house, that Persepolis became the capital' (see PERSIA: Ancient
See also:History, V . 2) of Persia proper . As a residence, however, for the rulers of the
See also:empire, a remote place in a difficult alpine region was far from convenient, and the real capitals were Susa,
See also:Babylon and
See also:Ecbatana . This accounts for the fact that the Greeks were not acquainted with the city until it was taken and plundered by Alexander the Great . Ctesias must certainly have known of it, and it is possible that he may have named it simply HEpoat, after the
See also:people, as is undoubtedly done by certain writers of a somewhat later date.' But whether the city really
See also:bore the name of the people and the
See also:country is another question .
And it is extremely hazardous to assume, with
See also:Sir H .
See also:Rawlinson and J .
See also:Oppert, that the words and Pdrsd, " in this Persia," which occur in an inscription on the gateway built by Xerxes (D . 1 . 14), signify " in this city of Parsa," and consequently prove that the name of the city is identical with the name of the country . The
See also:form Persepolis (with a
See also:play on 1rEpacs, destruction) appears first in
See also:Cleitarchus, one of the earliest, but unfortunately one of the most imaginative annalists of the exploits of Alexander . It has been universally admitted that " the palaces " or "the palace " (rel . (3ao-iXeca) burned down by Alexander are those now in ruins at Takhti Jamshid . From Stolze's investigations it appears that at least one of these, the
See also:castle built by Xerxes, bears evident traces of having been destroyed by
See also:fire . The locality described by Diodorus after Cleitarchus corresponds in important particulars with Takhti Jamshid, for example, in being supported by the This statement is not made in Ctesias (or rather in the extracts of Photius) about Darius II., which is probably accidental; in the case of Sogdianus, who as a usurper was not deemed worthy of honourable
See also:burial, there is a good reason for the omission . 2
See also:Arrian, iii . 22, 1 .
' Cf. also in particularPlutarch, Artax. iii., where Pasargadae is distinctly looked on as the sacred
See also:cradle of the
See also:dynasty . * The
See also:story of Aelian (H . A. i . 59), who makes Cyrus build his royal palace in Persepolis, deserves no
See also:attention . b So Arrian (iii . 18, 1, 1o), or rather his best authority, King
See also:Ptolemy . So, again, the Babylonian
See also:Berossus, shortly after Alexander . See Clemens Alex., Admen. ad gent's, c . 5, where, with Georg
See also:Hoffmann (Pers . Mdrtyrer, 137), KaL is to be inserted before Wpows, and this to be understood as the name of the metropolis. with an event which occurred shortly after A.D . 200 . mountain on the east .2 There is, however, one formidable difficulty .
Diodorus says that the rock at the back of the palace containing the royal sepulchres is so steep that the bodies could be raised to their last resting-place only by
See also:mechanical appliances . This is not true of the graves' behind Takhti Jamshid, to which, as F . Stolze expressly observes, one can easily ride up; on the other
See also:hand, it is strictly true of the graves at Nakshi Rustam . Stolze accordingly started the theory that the royal castle of Persepolis stood close by Nakshi Rustam, and has sunk in course of time to shapeless heaps of
See also:earth, under which the remains may be concealed . The vast ruins, however, of Takhti Jamshid, and the terrace constructed with so much labour, can hardly be anything else than the ruins of palaces; as for temples, the Persians had no such thing, at least in the time of Darius and Xerxes . Moreover, Persian tradition at a very remote
See also:period knew of only three architectural wonders in that region, which it attributed to the fabulous
See also:queen Humai (Khumai)—the grave of Cyrus at Murgab, the building at Hajjiabad, and those on the great terrace ? It is safest therefore to identify these last with the royal palaces destroyed by Alexander . Cleitarchus, who can scarcely have visited the place himself, with his usual recklessness of statement, confounded the tombs behind the palaces with those of Nakshi Rustam; indeed he appears to imagine that all the royal sepulchres were at the same place . In 316 B.C . Persepolis was still the capital of
See also:Persis as a province of the great Macedonian Empire (see Diod. xix, 21 seq., 46 ; probably after Hieronymus of Cardia, who was living about 316) . The city must have gradually declined in the course of time; but the ruins of the Achaemenidae remained as a witness to its ancient
See also:glory . It is probable that the
See also:town of the country, or at least of the
See also:district, was always in this neighbour-
See also:hood .
About A.D . 200 we find there the city Istakhr (properly Stakhr) as the seat of the
See also:governors . There the
See also:foundations of the second great Persian Empire were laid, and Istakhr acquired
See also:special importance as the centre of priestly wisdom and orthodoxy . The Sassanian kings have covered the face of the rocks in this neighbourhood, and in
See also:part even the Achaemenian ruins, with their sculptures and inscriptions, and must themselves have built largely here, although never on the same scale of magnificence as their ancient predecessors . The Romans knew as little about Istakhr as the Greeks had done about Persepolis —and this in spite of the fact that for four
See also:hundred years the Sassanians maintained relations, friendly or hostile, with the empire . At the time of the Arabian
See also:conquest Istakhr offered a desperate resistance, but the city was still a place of considerable importance in the 1st century of
See also:Islam (see
See also:CALIPHATE), although its greatness was speedily eclipsed by the new metropolis Shiraz . In the loth century Istakhr had become an utterly insignificant place, as may be seen from the descriptions of Istakhr, a native (c . 950), and of Mukaddasi (c . 985) . During the following centuries Istakhr gradually declines, until, as a city, it ceased to exist . This fruitful region, however, was covered with villages till the frightful devastations of the 18th century; and even now it is, comparatively speaking, well cultivated . The " castle of Istakhr " played a conspicuous part several times during the
See also:Mahommedan period as a strong fortress .
It was the
See also:middle-most and the highest of the three steep crags which rise from the valley of the Kur, at some distance to the west or
See also:north-west of Nakshi Rustam . We learn from
See also:Oriental writers that one of the Buyid (Buwaihid) sultans in the loth century of the
See also:Flight constructed the great cisterns, which may yet be seen, and have been visited, amongst others, by
See also:James Morier and E . Flandin . W . Ouseley points out that this castle was still used in the 16th century, at least as a state prison . But when Pietro della Valle was there in 1621 it was already in ruins . ' The name of this mountain too, flaui.X1Kdv
See also:opus, is identical with Shdhkuh, which is at least tolerably well established by W . Ouseley (ii . 417) as a synonym of Kuhi rahmet . ' See especially Hamza Isp., 38 ;Tabari, i . 69o, 816 (cf . T .
Noldeke, Geschichte der Perser . . . aus . . . Tabari, p . 8) . The ruins at Takhti Jamshid are alluded to as the work of Humai, in connexion (TH . N . ; A . H .
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