Online Encyclopedia

PERSONAL

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V09, Page 60 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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PERSONAL PRONOUNS Sing. 1. c. Lw (?) later wt. Pl. 1. c. n. Du. a. m. kw. 2. C. 1n. 2. C. tny. f. tn. 3. m. *fy, surviving only 3. m. in, early lost, 3. c..fny. in a special except as verbal form. suffix. f. *St surviving as 3. C. From these are derived the suffixes, which are shortened forms attached to nouns to express the possessor, and to verbs to express the subject. In the latter case the verb was probably in the participle, so that .fdmii-Ln, " they hear," is literally " hearing are they." The singular suffixes are: (I) c.-t; (2) M. -k, f. -t; (3) m. -f, f. -S;—the dual and plural have no special forms. Another series of absolute pronouns is: (2) m. Iwt, tw; f. tmt, tm; (3) m. fwt, t!w; f. slt, it. Of these twt, tint, &c., are emphatic forms. Many of the above absolute pronouns were almost obsolete even in the Old Kingdom. In ordinary texts some survive, especially as objects of verbs, namely, wi, tw, tn, sw, st. The suffixes of all numbers and persons except the dual were in full use throughout, to Coptic; sn, however, giving way to a new suffix, -w, which developed first in the New Kingdom. Another absolute pronoun of the first person is ink, APfOK, like Heb. tut. It is associated with a series for the second and third persons: nt-k, nt-t, nt f, nt-in, &c.; but from their history, use and form, it seems probable that the last are of later formation, and are not to be connected with the Semitic pronouns (chiefly of the 2nd person) resembling them.
End of Article: PERSONAL
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