See also:bishop of Winchester under
See also:John and
See also:Henry III., and conspicuous among the
See also:foreign favourites to whom these sovereigns owed much of their unpopularity, was a Poitevin by extraction . He received the
See also:office of chamber-lain towards the close of
See also:Richard's reign, and under Richard's successor became an influential counsellor . In 1205, doubtless through John's influence, he was elected to the see of Winchester . His election was disputed but, on
See also:appeal, confirmed by
See also:Pope Innocent III., who honoured
See also:Peter by consecrating him in
See also:person . None the less, the new bishop stood by his royal
See also:patron during the whole
See also:period of the
See also:interdict . In 1213 he was made justiciar in succession to Geoffrey Fitz Peter . This promotion was justified by the fidelity with which Peter supported the
See also:king through the barons' war . At the
See also:battle of Lincoln (1217) Peter led a division of the royal army and earned some distinction by his valour; but he played a secondary
See also:part in the
See also:government so long as
See also:William Marshal held the regency . After Marshal's
See also:death (1219) Peter led the baronial opposition to Hubert de Burgh, with varying success . At first the justiciar was successful . In 1221 Peter meditated going on crusade; 1223-1224 saw his party broken up by Hubert's energetic
See also:measures; in 1227 was himself dismissed from his office and turned his back on England to join the crusade of the emperor
See also:Frederick II . He was absent from England until 1231; but in the meantime enhanced his reputation both as a soldier and diplomatist .
After the fall of De Burgh he kept in the back-ground, but offices and honours were heaped on his dependants, especially on his
See also:nephew, Peter
See also:Rievaulx, and other Poitevins . This foreign party triumphed over the revolt which was headed by Richard Marshal in 1233 . But the primate, Edmund
See also:Rich, voiced the general feeling when he denounced Peter as a
See also:mischief maker, and demanded that he should be dismissed from
See also:court . The king complied, and threatened the bishop with charges of malversation . Peter was how-ever permitted to leave the
See also:country with a
See also:pardon (1235); he conciliated
See also:Gregory IX. by rendering efficient aid in a war with the citizens of Rome (1235); and in the next
See also:year returned without molestation to his see . He was invited to go as the king's
See also:envoy to the court of Frederick II., but refused apparently on the score of
See also:health . His public reconciliation with De Burgh (1236), effected through the
See also:mediation of the papal
See also:legate, provided a dramatic close to their long rivalry, but had no
See also:political significance, since both were now living in retirement . Peter died in 1238, and was buried at Winchester . He was undoubtedly a man of a winning
See also:personality, a
See also:good diplomat and financier, a statesman whose unpopularity was due in some measure to his freedom from the insularity of the Englishmen, against whom he matched himself . But his name is associated with a worthless clique of favourites, and with the first steps which were taken by Henry III. to establish a feeble and corrupt autocracy . See C .
See also:Petit Dutaillis,
See also:Vie et regne de
See also:Louis VIII .
See also:Paris, 1894) ; Lecointre
See also:Pierre des Roches (
See also:Poitiers, 1868) ; Stubbs's Constitutional
See also:History of England, vol. ii . ; H . W . C .
See also:Davis, England under the
See also:Normans and Angevins (19o5) ; T . F . Tout in the Political History of England, vol. iii . (1905) . (H . W . C .
PETER HESS (1792–11871)—afterwards von Hess—w...
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