See also:tyrant of Acragas (Agrigentum) in
See also:Sicily, c . 570—554 B.C . He was entrusted with the
See also:building of the
See also:temple of
See also:Zeus Atabyrius in the citadel, and took
See also:advantage of his position to make himself
See also:despot (Aristotle, Politics, v . 10) . Under his
See also:rule Agrigentum seems to have attained considerable prosperity . He supplied the city with
See also:water, adorned it with
See also:fine buildings, and strengthened it with walls . On the
See also:coast of the
See also:island the
See also:people of
See also:Himera elected him general with absolute power, in spite of the warnings of the poet
See also:Stesichorus (Aristotle, Rhetoric, ii . 20) . According to Suidas he succeeded in making himself
See also:master of the whole of the island . He was at last overthrown in a general rising headed by
See also:Telemachus, the ancestor of Theron (tyrant c . 488—472), and burned in his brazen bull . After ages have held tip Phalaris to
See also:infamy for his excessive cruelty .
In his brazen bull, invented, it is said, by Perillus ofAthens, the tyrant's victims were shut up and, a
See also:fire being kindled beneath, were roasted alive, while their shrieks represented the bellowing of the bull . Perillus himself is said to have been the first victim . There is hardly
See also:room to doubt that we have here a tradition of human sacrifice in connexion with the worship of the Phoenician
See also:Baal (Zeus Atabyrius) such as prevailed at Rhodes; when misfortune threatened Rhodes the brazen bulls in his temple bellowed . The Rhodians brought this worship to
See also:Gela, which they founded
See also:con-jointly with the Cretans, and from Gela it passed to Agrigentum . Human sacrifices to Baal were
See also:common, and, though in
See also:Phoenicia proper there is no
See also:proof that the victims were burned alive, the Carthaginians had a brazen image of Baal, from whose down-turned hands the
See also:children slid into a
See also:pit of fire; and the
See also:story that
See also:Minos had a brazen man who pressed people to his glowing
See also:breast points to similar
See also:rites in Crete, where the
See also:child-devouring Minotaur must certainly be connected with Baal and the favourite sacrifice to him of children . The story of the bull cannot be dismissed as pure invention . Pindar (Pythia, i . 85), who lived less than a century afterwards, expressly associates this instrument of torture with the name of the tyrant . There was certainly a brazen bull at Agrigentum, which was carried off by the Carthaginians to
See also:Carthage, whence it was again taken by Scipio and restored to Agrigentum . In later times the tradition prevailed that Phalaris was a naturally humane man and a
See also:patron of philosophy and literature . He is so described in the declamations ascribed to Lucian, and in the letters which bear his own name . Plutarch, too, though he takes the unfavourable view, mentions that the Sicilians gave to the severity of Phalaris the name of
See also:justice and a hatred of
See also:crime .
Phalaris may thus have been one of those men who combine justice and even humanity with religious fanaticism (Suidas, s.v.; Diod . Sic. ix . 20, 30, xiii . 90, xxxii . 25;
See also:Polybius vii . 7, xii . 25;
See also:Cicero, De Qjjciis, ii . 7, iii . 6) . The letters bearing the name of Phalaris (148 in number) are now chiefly remembered for the crushing exposure they received at the hands of
See also:Richard Bentley in his controversy with the Hon .
See also:Charles Boyle, who had published an edition of them in 1695 . The first edition of Bentley's Dissertation on Phalaris appeared in 1697, and the second edition, replying to the answer which Boyle published in 1698, came out in 1699 .
From the mention in the letters of towns (Phintia, Alaesa and Tauromenium) which did not exist in the
See also:time of Phalaris, from the imitations of authors (
See also:Callimachus) who wrote long after he was dead, from the reference to tragedies, though tragedy was not yet invented in the lifetime of Phalaris, from the dialect, which is not Dorian but
See also:nay, New or
See also:Late Attic. as well as from absurdities in the
See also:matter, and the entire
See also:absence of any reference to them by any writer before
See also:Stobaeus (c . A.D . 500), Bentley sufficiently proved that the letters were written by a sophist or rhetorician (possibly Adrianus of Tyre, died c . A.D . 192) hundreds of years after the
See also:death of Phalaris . Suidas admired the letters, which he thought genuine, and in
See also:modern times, before their exposure by Bentley, they were thought highly of by some (e.g .
See also:William Temple in his
See also:Essay on
See also:Ancient and Modern Learning), though others, as Politianus and
See also:Erasmus, perceived that they were not by Phalaris . The latest edition of the Epistles is by R . Hercher, in Epistolographi graeci (1873), and of Bentley's Dissertation byW.Wagner (with introduction and notes, 1883) ; see especially R . C . Jebb,
See also:Life of Bentley (1882) .
PHALANX (Gr. /&Xa'y, , of unknown origin)
PHALLICISM, or PHALLISM (from Gr. cbaXAos)
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