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Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V21, Page 366 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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PHERECYDES OF SYROS, Greek philosopher (or rather philosophical theologian), flourished during the 6th century B.C. He was sometimes reckoned one of the Seven Wise Men, and is said to have been the teacher of Pythagoras. With the possible C,H a/ \CO:H IV. Phenolphthaline. Phenolphthalein is obtained when phenol and phthalic anhydride are heated with concentrated sulphuric acid. It crystallizes in colourless crusts and is nearly insoluble in water, but dissolves in dilute solutions of the caustic alkalis with a fine red colour, being reprecipitated from these solutions by the addition of mineral acid. It dissolves in concentrated caustic alkalis to a colourless solution which probably contains salts of a non-quinonoid character. This difference in behaviour has led to considerable discussion (see H. Meyer, Monats., 1899, 20, p. 337; R. Meyer, Ber., 1903, 36, p. 2949; A. G. Perkin and Green, Jour. Chem. Soc., 1904, p. 398). On fusion with caustic alkali, phenolphthalein yields benzoic acid and para-dihydroxybenzophenone, which shows that in the original condensation the phthalic acid residue has taken the para position to the hydroxyl groups of the phenol. Fluorane is a product of the condensation of the phthalic acid residue in the ortho position to the hydroxyl groups of the phenol, and beautifully illustrated archaeological works produced. The labours of Cockerell and his companions were richly rewarded; not only were sufficient remains of the architectural features discovered to show clearly the whole design, but the internal sculptured frieze of the cella was found almost perfect. This and other fragments of its sculpture are now in the British Museum. The colonnade of the temple has been recently 366 exception of Cadmus (q.v.) of Miletus, he was the first Greek prose-writer. He belonged to the circle of Peisistratus at Athens, and was the founder of an Orphic community. He is characterized as " one of the earliest representatives of a half-critical, half-credulous eclecticism " (Gomperz). He was credited with having originated the doctrine of metempsychosis (q.v.), while Cicero and Augustine assert that he was the first to teach the immortality of the soul. Of his astronomical studies he left a proof in the " heliotropion," a cave at Syros which served to determine the annual turning-point of the sun, like the grotto of Posillipo (Posilipo, Posilippo) at Naples, and was one of the sights of the island. In his cosmogonic treatise on nature and the gods, called Heeri).wxoc (Preller's correction of Suidas, who has i1rTaµvXos) from the five elementary or original principles (aether, fire, air, water, earth; Gomperz substitutes smoke and darkness for aether and earth), he enunciated a system in which science, allegory and mythology were blended. In the beginning were Chronos, the principle of time; Zeus (Zas), the principle of life; and Chthonie, the earth goddess. Chronos begat fire, air and water, and from these three sprang numerous other gods. Smoke and darkness appear in a later tradition. A fragment of the " sacred marriage " of Zas and Chthonie was found on an Egyptian papyrus at the end of the 19th century. See H. Diels, Fragrnente der Vorsokratiker (1903) ; also O. Kern, De Orphei, Epimenidis, Pherecydis theogoniis (1838); D. Speliotopoulos, IIepi'h.pssi5ov roi Zvpi.0 (Athens, 189o) ; T. Gomperz, Greek Thinkers (Eng. trans.), i. 85; B. P. Grenfell, New Classical Fragments (1847); H. Weil, Etudes sur l'antiquite grecque (1900).
PHIGALIA, or PHIGALEIA ( tykXca or f'tyaXeia; mod. ...

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