PHOTIUS (c. 82o-891) ,
See also:patriarch of Constantinople (858–867 and 878-886) . From his early years he displayed an extra-ordinary
See also:talent and appetite for knowledge, and as soon as he had completed his own
See also:education he began to teach with distinguished success grammar, rhetoric, divinity and philosophy . The way to public
See also:life was probably opened for him by the
See also:marriage of his
See also:Sergius to the princess
See also:sister of Theodora, who, upon the
See also:death of her
See also:Theophilus in 842, had assumed the regency of the
See also:empire . Photius became captain of the guard and subsequently first imperial secretary . The dissensions between the patriarch
See also:Ignatius and Bardas, the
See also:uncle of the youthful Emperor Michael III., brought promotion to Photius . Ignatius was arrested and imprisoned (Nev . 858), and upon refusing to resign his
See also:office was illegally deposed, while Photius, although a layman, received all the necessary sacerdotal orders within six days, and was installed as patriarch in his place . Ignatius, continuing to refuse the
See also:abdication which could alone have given Photius's
See also:elevation a semblance of legality, was treated with extreme severity . His cause was subsequently espoused by
See also:Nicholas in a manner highly offensive to the891 . For long after Photius's death his memory was held in no
See also:honour by his countrymen . But when, in the crusading age, the Greek
See also:Church and state were alike in danger from Latin encroachments, Photius became a
See also:national hero, and is at
See also:present regarded as little
See also:short of a
See also:saint . To this character he has not the least pretension .
Few men, it is probable, have been more atrociously calumniated; but, when every specific statement to his
See also:prejudice has been rejected, he still appears on a general review of his actions worldly, crafty and unscrupulous . Yet he shows to no little
See also:advantage as an ecclesiastical statesman . His firmness was heroic: his sagacity profound and far-seeing; he supported.
See also:good and evil
See also:fortune with equal dignity; and his fall was on both occasions due to revolutions beyond his
See also:control . In erudition,
See also:literary power, and force and versatility of intellect he far surpassed every contemporary . The most important of the
See also:works of Photius is his renowned Bibliotheca or Myriobiblon (ed . I .
See also:Bekker, 1824–1825), a collection of extracts from and abridgments of 28o volumes of classical authors (usually cited as Codices), the originals of which are now to a
See also:great extent lost . The
See also:work is specially
See also:rich in extracts from
See also:historical writers . To Photius we are indebted for almost all we possess of
See also:Conon, the lost books of Diodorus Siculus, and the lost writings of
See also:Arrian .
See also:Theology and ecclesiastical
See also:history are also very fully represented, but
See also:poetry and
See also:ancient philosophy are almost entirely ignored . It seems that he did not think it necessary to
See also:deal with those authors with whom every well-educated man would naturally be
See also:familiar . The literary criticisms, generally distinguished by keen and
See also:judgment, and the excerpts, vary considerably in length .
See also:biographical notices are probably taken from the work of
See also:Hesychius of
See also:Miletus . The+
See also:Lexicon (A&femv Euvaymyit), published later than the Bibliotheca, was probably in the
See also:main the work of some of his pupils . It was intended as a
See also:book of reference to facilitate the
See also:reading of old classical and sacred authors, whose language and vocabulary were out of date, The only MS. of the Lexicon is the Codex Galeanus, formerly in the possession of
See also:Thomas Gale (q.v.), and now in the library of Trinity
See also:College, Cambridge (ed . S . A . Naber, 1864, with introduction on the authorities, critical commentary, and valuable indexes) . His most important theological work is the Amphilochia, a collection of some 300 questions and answers on difficult points in Scripture, addressed to Amphilochius, archbishop of
See also:Cyzicus (ed .
See also:Sophocles Oeconomus, Athens, 1858) . Other similar works are his
See also:treatise in four books against the Manichaeans and
See also:Paulicians, and his controversy with the Latins on the Procession of the
See also:Holy Spirit . His Epistles,
See also:political and private, addressed to high church and state dignitaries, are valuable for the
See also:light they throw upon the character and versatility of the writer (ed . J . Valettas,
See also:London, 1864) .
A large number of his speeches and homilies have been edited by S . Aristarches (1900) . The only
See also:complete edition is
See also:Bishop Malou's in
See also:Migne's Patrologia graeca, ci.–cv . R . Reifzenstein (Der Anfang
See also:des Lexikons des Photius, 1907) has published a hitherto unedited MS. containing numerous fragments from various
See also:verse and
See also:prose authors . After the allusions in his own writings the chief contemporary authority for the life of Photius is his bitter enemy, Nicetas the Paphlagonian, the biographer of his
See also:rival Ignatius . The standard
See also:modern work is that of
See also:Hergenrother, Photius, Patriarch von Constantinopel (1867–1869) . As a dignitary of the
See also:Roman Catholic Church, Cardinal Hergenrother is inevitably biased against Photius as an ecclesiastic, but his natural candour and sympathy with intellectual
See also:eminence have made him just to the man . See also article by F . Kattenbusch in Herzog-Hauck's Realencyklop6.die fur protestantische Theologie (1904), containing full
See also:bibliographical details; J . A .
See also:Fabricius, Bibliotheca graeca, x .
67o-776, xi . 1–37 ; C .
See also:Krumbacher, Geschichte der byzantinischen Litteratur, pp . 73-79, 515–524 (2nd ed., 1897) ; J . E . Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship (2nd ed., 1906) .
PHOTOCHEMISTRY (Gr. 4&n, light, and " chemistry ")
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