PLOUGH AND PLOUGHING . To enable the
See also:soil to grow
See also:good crops the upper layer must be pulverized and weathered . This operation, performed in the
See also:garden by means of the
See also:spade, is carried on in the
See also:field on a larger scale by the plough,' which breaks the soil and by inverting the furrow-slice, exposes fresh surfaces to the disintegrating influence of air,
See also:rain and
See also:frost . The first recorded
See also:form of plough is found on the monuments of
See also:Egypt, where it consists simply of a wooden
See also:wedge tipped with iron and fastened to a handle projecting backwards and a
See also:beam, pulled by men or oxen, projecting forwards . Many references to the plough are found in the Old Testament, notably that in 1 Sam. xiii . 20: " All the Israelites went down to the
See also:Philistines to sharpen every man his
See also:share and his coulter." Descriptions of ploughs found in
See also:Works and Days and in Virgil's Georgics i . 169-175, show little development in the implement . The same may be said of the Anglo-Saxon ploughs . These are shown with coulter and share and also with wheels, which had in earlier times been fitted to ploughs by the Greeks and also by the natives of Cis-Alpine Gaul (Pliny, His& nat . 18, 18) . A mattock with which to break the clods is often found represented in Anglo-Saxon drawings as subsidiary to the plough . All these types of plough are virtually hoes pulled through the ground, breaking but not inverting the soil .
In the first
See also:half of the 18th century a plough with a
See also:board of
See also:wood was introduced from the
See also:Netherlands into England and, as improved at Rotherham in
See also:Yorkshire, became known as the Rotherham plough and enjoyed considerable vogue . At this
See also:period ploughs were made almost wholly of wood, the mould-board being cased with plates of iron . Small, of
See also:Berwickshire, brought out a plough in which beam and handle were of wrought The O . Eng. form is pjoh, which is usually found in the sense of " plough-
See also:land," a unit for the assessment of land (see HIDE), the
See also:regular O . Eng. word for the implement being sulh, still found in some dialects in the form sull . It appears in many Teutonic
See also:languages, cf . Du. ploeg, Ger . Pflug, Swed. plog,
See also:Dan. ploy . The
See also:Slavonic forms, such as Russ. or Pol. plug, are borrowed from the German . It does not appear in
See also:Gothic, where the word used is hoha . The ultimate origin of " plough " is unknown . Max-
See also:Muller (Science of Language, i .
296) connects the word with the Indo-
See also:root meaning " to
See also:float," seen in the Gr . ,rXorov, a
See also:boat or
See also:ship; the same word would be applied to the ship " ploughing " through the waves, and to the implement " ploughing " through the
See also:earth . A
See also:Celtic origin has been suggested, connecting the word with Gael. ploe, stump of a
See also:tree, as forming the
See also:original plough . The form " plow " was
See also:common in
See also:English until the beginning of the 18th century, and is usual in
See also:America.iron, the mould-board of
See also:cast iron . The shares, when made of the same material, required
See also:constant sharpening; this
See also:necessity was removed by the
See also:device, patented by Robert Ransome in 1803, of chilling and so hardening the under-
See also:surface of the share; the upper surface, which is soft, then wears away more quickly than the chilled
See also:part, whereby a
See also:sharp edge is always assured . Nowadays the mould-board is of
See also:steel with a chilled and polished surface to give greater wearing qualities and to reduce
See also:friction . In the latter part of the 19th century there were numerous improvements but no fundamental alterations in the construction of the ordinary plough . The working parts of the plough are the coulter, the share, and the
See also:breast or mould-board . These are carried on the beam, to which are attached the handles or tilts at the back, and the hake or clevis and
See also:draught-chain at the front . The hake is notched so that, by moving the draught-chain higher or
See also:lower thereon, the plough is caused to go more or less deeply into the ground . It may also be adjusted to suit the height of the horses used . The hake moves laterally on a quadrant and it is thus possible to give the plough a tendency to
See also:left or right by moving the hake in the
See also:reverse direction .
See also:frame is bolted to the beam and this carries the breast or mould-board to the fore-end of which the share is fitted . The side-cap, a
See also:plate of Newcastle Plough . iron fixed to the land-side of the frame, is intended to keep the edge of the unploughed soil vertical and prevent it from falling into the furrow . A piece of iron called the
See also:slade is bolted to the bottom of the frame, and this,
See also:running along the
See also:sole of the fur-
See also:row, acts as a
See also:base to the whole implement . The coulter (either
See also:knife or disk) and sometimes a skint-coulter (or jointer) are attached adjustably to the beam, so as to
See also:act in the front of the share . The coulter is a knife or revolving disk which is fixed so that its point clears the point of the share . The skim-coulter is shaped like a
See also:miniature plough, substituted for or fixed in front of the coulter; it is used chiefly on
See also:lea land, to
See also:pare off the surface of the soil together with the vegetation thereon, and turn it into the previous furrow, where it is immediately buried by the furrow slice . Two wheels of unequal height are commonly fitted to the front of the beam . By means of them the
See also:depth and width of the furrow are regulated, whereas in the case of "
See also:swing " or wheelless ploughs these points depend chiefly on the skill of the ploughman . In the wheeled plough some of the
See also:weight and downward pull due to its
See also:action on the ground is taken by the wheels; the sliding friction is thus to some extent converted into a
See also:rolling friction, and the draught is correspondingly diminished . In operation the coulter makes a perpendicular cut separating the furrow-slice which is divided from the " sole " of the furrow Crested Furrow . Rectangular Furrow .
by the share and then inverted by the
See also:curve of the breast as the . plough moves forward . The
See also:process is indicated in the illustra- tion of different types of furrow . The form of a furrow is regulated by the shape and 'width of the share, working in combination with a proper shaped breast . A " crested " furrow is obtained by the use of a share, the wing of which is set at a higher altitude than the point, but this type of furrow Wide Broken Furrow . is less generally found than the " rectangular " form obtained by a level-edged share, which leaves a
See also:flat bottom . During the greater part of the loth century the ideal of ploughing was to preserve the furrow-slice unbroken, and this
See also:object was attained by the use of long mould-boards which turned the Digging Plough . slices gently and gradually, laying them over against one another at an
See also:angle of 450, thus providing drainage at the bottom of the furrow, and exposing the greatest possible surface to the influences of the
See also:weather . Subsequently the digging plough came into vogue; the share being wider, a wider furrow is cut, while the slice is inverted by a short
See also:concave mould-board with a sharp turn which at the same
See also:time breaks up and pulverizes the soil after the fashion of a spade . Except on extremely heavy soils or on shallow soils with a subsoil which it is unwise to bring upon the surface, the
See also:modern tendency is in favour of the digging plough . A ploughed field is divided into lands or sections of equal width separated by furrows . On
See also:light easy draining land 22 yds. is the usual width; on the heaviest lands it may be as little as s yds., and in the latter case the furrows will act as drains into which the
See also:water flows from the intervening ridges) .
Certain importantvariations of the ordinary plough demand
See also:consideration . The one-way plough
See also:lays the furrows alter-counteract the tendency for the soil to
See also:work down the slope . One-way ploughs also leave the land level and dispense with the wide open furrows between the ridges which are left by the ordinary plough . They are made on different principles . One type comprises two
See also:separate ploughs, one right
See also:hand and one left, which revolve on the beam, one working, while the other stands vertically above it . In another the mould-board and
See also:Balance Plough . share are shaped so that they can be swung on a swivel under the beam when the latter is lifted . A third type is made on the " balance " principle, two plough beams with mould-boards being placed at right angles to one another, so that while the right-hand plough is at work the left-hand is elevated above the ground .
See also:Double furrow or multiple ploughs are a combination of two or more ploughs arranged in
See also:echelon so as to plough two or more furrows . The weight of these implements necessitates some
See also:provision for turning them at the headlands, and this is supplied either by a bowl
See also:wheel, enabling the plough to be turned on one side, or by a pair of wheels cranked so that they can be raised by a
See also:lever when the plough is working . The double-furrow Turnwrest Plough . nately to its left and right, so that they all slope in the same direction .
This is found advantageous on
See also:hill-sides where the work is easier if all the furrows are turned downhill; or from another point of view the furrows may be all laid uphill so as to ' Methods of the " setting-out " of land to be ploughed together with a full discussion of other technical details'
See also:relating to ploughing will be found in ch. vii. of W . J .
See also:Malden's Workman's Technical Instructor (
See also:London, 1905) .
See also:Riding Plough . plough was known as early as the 17th century, but, till the introduction of the latter device by Ransome in 1873, cannot be said-to have been in successful use . The " sulky " or riding plough is little known in the
See also:Kingdom, but on the larger arable tracts of " other countries where
See also:quick work is essential and the character of the surface permits, it is in general use . In this form of plough the frame is mounted on three wheels, one of which runs on the land, and the other two in the furrow . The furrow wheels are placed on inclined axles, the plough beam being carried on swing links, operated by a hand lever when it is necessary to raise the plough out of the furrow . The land wheel and the forward furrow wheel are adjustable vertically with reference to the frame, for the purpose of controlling the action of the plough . In the disk plough, which is built both as a riding and a walking plough, the essential feature is the substitution of a concavo- convex disk, pivoted on the plough beam, for the mould-board and share of the ordinary plough . This disk is carried on an
See also:axle inclined to the
See also:line of draught, and also to a vertical
See also:plane . As the machine is
See also:drawn forward the disk revolves and cuts deeply into the ground, and by reason of its inclination crowds the earth outwards and thus turns a furrow .
A scraper is Multiple Disk Plough . provided to keep the disk clean and prevent sticking . The controlling levers and draught arrangements are similar to those in the " sulky " plough . The
See also:advantage of this plough over the ordinary form is in the
See also:absence of sliding friction, and in the mellow and porous
See also:condition in which it leaves the bottom of the furrow . Disk ploughs are unsuitable for heavy sticky soils and for stony land, but may be used with effect on stubbles and on land in a dry hard state . Perhaps their most common use is in ploughing on a large scale in conjunction with steam power . Steam is employed as
See also:motive power when it is necessary to plough large areas in a short time . In the United Kingdom steam ploughing is generally carried on on the double-engine
See also:system (introduced by Messrs
See also:Fowler about 1865), in which case two sets of ploughs are arranged on the one-way balance principle, so that while one set is at work the other is carried clear of the ground . In this arrangement, a pair of
See also:locomotive engines, each having a plain winding
See also:drum fixed underneath the
See also:boiler, are placed opposite to each other at the ends of the field to be operated upon; the rope of each of the engines is attached to the plough, or other tillage implement, which is drawn to and fro betwixt them by each working in turn . While the engine in
See also:gear is coiling in its rope and
See also:drawing the plough towards itself, the rope of the other engine is paid out with merely so much
See also:drag on it as to keep it from kinking or getting ravelled on the drum . In the United States and elsewhere engines drawing behind them a number of ploughs, arranged in echelon and taking perhaps The sub-soil plough has the beam and
See also:body but not the mould-board of an ordinary plough . Following in the furrow of an ordinary plough it breaks through the sub-soil to a depth of several inches, making it porous and penetrable by plant roots .
Gripping and draining ploughs are employed in opening the grips and trenches necessary both in surface and underground drainage . See
See also:Davidson and
See also:Motors and Farm Machinery ; articles in L . H .
See also:Bailey's Cyclopedia of
See also:Agriculture (New
See also:York, 1907) and Standard
See also:Encyclopaedia (London, 1908), &c .
PLOTINUS (A.D. 204-270)
which way do you role a ploughed field with the furrows or accross the furrows.
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