POLISH LITERATURE The Polishlanguage belongs to the western branch of the
See also:Slavonic tongues, and exhibits the closest
See also:affinities with the
See also:Czech or Bohemian and Lusatian Wendish . Unlike the
See also:people of other Slavonic countries, the Poles are comparatively poor in popular and legendary
See also:poetry, but such compositions undoubtedly existed in early times, as may be seen by the writings of their chroniclers; thus
See also:Gallus translated into Latin a poem written on Boleslaus the Brave, and a few old Polish songs are included in Wojcicki's Library of
See also:Ancient Writers . A
See also:deal of the early literature written in Poland is in Latin . The earliest specimen of the Polish language is the so-called Psalter of
See also:Margaret, discovered in 1826 at the convent of St Florian . The date of the
See also:manuscript appears to be the
See also:middle of the 14th century, and probably in its
See also:form it is only a copy of a much older text; there is also a
See also:translation of the fiftieth psalm belonging to the 13th century.' The ancient Polish hymn or war
See also:song, Piesn Boga Rodzica, was an address to the Virgin, sung by the Poles when about to fight . The
See also:oldest manuscript of this production is dated 1408, and is preserved at
See also:Cracow . By a
See also:legend which subsequently
See also:grew up the composition of it was assigned to St Adalbert .
See also:John Lodzia,
See also:bishop of Posen from 133 5 to 1346, composed several religious songs in Latin . The next
See also:monument of Polish literature to which we come is the Bible of Queen
See also:Sophia or Bible of Szaroszpatak . It is imperfect, and only contains the early books, viz. the
See also:Ruth and
See also:Kings; there are, however, fragments of three others . It is said to have been written for Sophia, the
See also:fourth wife of Jagiello, about the
See also:year 1455 . It has been edited with great care by Malecki .
Five religious songs in Polish dating from the 15th century have been preserved; they are ascribed toAndrew Slopuchowski,
See also:prior of the monastery of the
See also:Cross on Lysa Gbra . There is also the fragment of a hymn in praise of Wycliffe . To these fragments may be added the prayer-
See also:book of a certain Waclaw, a
See also:sermon on
See also:marriage, and some Polish glosses . These are all the existing memorials of the Polish language before the 16th century . Perhaps a few words should be said concerning the writers in Latin .
See also:Martin Gallus lived in Poland between Ilro and 1135 . The Latin From his name he has been supposed by some to
See also:chronicles. have been a Frenchman or Walloon, and we must remember that Poland swarmed at that
See also:time with
See also:foreign ecclesiastics .
See also:Lelewel, the Polish historian, considers that it is merely a translation into Latin of some such name as Kura, signifying " a
See also:fowl." Others suppose him to have been an
See also:Italian, or a
See also:monk from the convent of St
See also:Gall in
See also:Switzerland . He has plenty of legends to tell us, and writes altogether in a poetical
See also:style, so that his
See also:prose seems to fall into rhythm unconsciously . His quotations from the
See also:classics, Sallust,
See also:Lucan and others, show the extent of his
See also:reading . Gallus was followed by
See also:Matthew Cholewa and Vincent Kadlubek, two bishops of Cracow, and Bogufal or Boguchwal (Gottlob), bishop of Posen, who all used Latin . The
See also:work of Kadlubek is more ornate in diction than that of Bogufal, and for a long time enjoyed great popularity .
See also:born in 1160, educated at the university of
See also:Paris, and died in Poland in 1223 as a Cistercian monk . His Latin, like that of Gallus, is far from classical, but he writes with spirit and throws a
See also:good deal of
See also:light upon 1 The Psalter is called after Margaret, the first wife of
See also:Louis, who died in 1349, by a mere conjecture . Caro thinks it more probable that the book belonged to Mary, his daughter.the events of his time . The
See also:education of the
See also:country was wholly in the hands of the ecclesiastics, many of whom were foreigners. in this way we must explain the great prevalence of the Latin language . Such a
See also:system would be sure to stifle all
See also:national outgrowth, and accordingly we have among the Poles none of those early monuments of the language which other countries boast . For instance, there are no bilini or legendary poems, such as are found among the Russians, although many passages in the ancient chroniclers from their poetical colouring seem to be borrowed from old songs or legends, and the first verses of some of these compositions have been preserved . Mention may here be made of other chroniclers such as Martin the
See also:Pole (Polonus), who died in 1279 or 1280, and
See also:Jan of Czarnkow, who died in 1389; the latter was the historian and panegyrist of Casimir the Great . With the reign of Casimir III . (1333–1370) must be associated the statutes of Wislica . Jadwiga, the wife of Jagiello, was mainly instrumental in creating the university of Cracow, which received a
See also:charter in 1364, but did not come into effective existence till its reconstitution in 1400 . In this institution for many years all the great men of Poland were trained—among others
See also:Gregory of Sanok, Dlugosz and Copernicus . Casimir the Great may be said to have laid the foundation of this university .
Having obtained the consent of
See also:Pope Urban V., he established at Cracow a studiumgenerale on the
See also:model of the university of Bologna . It consisted of three faculties—Roman
See also:medicine and philosophy . But the aristocratic youth still preferred frequenting the
See also:universities of
See also:Padua and Paris, and accordingly the newly founded studium languished . Jadwiga, however, obtained from Boniface IX. permission to create a new
See also:chair, that of
See also:theology; and the university of Cracow was remodelled, having been reorganized on the same basis as that of Paris . Another university was founded later at Vilna by Batory, and one at Zamosc by the chancellor
See also:Zamoyski, There were also good
See also:schools in various places, such as the Collegium Lubranskiego of Posen and the school of St Mary at Cracow . In the year 1474 a
See also:press was set up in the latter city, where Gunther Zainer printed the first book . The first press from which books in the Polish language appeared was that of Hieronymus Wietor, a Silesian, who commenced
See also:publishing in 1515 . A few fragments printed in Polish had appeared before this, as the
See also:Lord's Prayer in the statutes of the bishops of
See also:Breslau in 1475, the
See also:story of Pope U;
See also:ban in Latin, German and Polish in 1505, &c.; but the first
See also:complete work in the Polish language appeared from the press of this printer at Cracow in 1521, under the title, Speeches of the Wise King Solomon . The translation was executed by Jan Koszycki, as the printer informs us in the preface, and the work is dedicated to Anna Wojnicka, the wife of a castellan . In 1522, a Polish translation of Ecclesiastes appeared from that press, and before the conclusion of that year The
See also:Life of Christ, with woodcuts, translated into Polish by Balthasar Opec . Many other presses were soon established . Printers of repute at Cracow, during the 16th and beginning of the 17th century, were Sybeneicher and Piotrkowczyk .
Little as yet had been produced in Polish, as the chroniclers still adhered to Latin; and here mention must be made of Jan Dlugosz, who called himself
See also:Longinus . He was bishop ptugesa. of
See also:Lemberg, the capital of
See also:Galicia, and has
See also:left us a very valuable
See also:history which has merits of style and shows considerable
See also:research . So anxious was Dlugosz to make his work as perfect as he could that he learned
See also:Russian so as to be able to read the
See also:Chronicle of Nestor . The best
See also:part of his book. is that which treats of the
See also:period between 1386 and 1480 . About 15oo was written an interesting little work entitled "
See also:Memoirs of a Polish Janissary " (Pamietniki ianczara polaka) . Although written in the Polish language, it was probably the production of a Serb, Michael Constantinovich of Ostrovitza . He was taken prisoner by the
See also:Turks in 1455 and served ten years among the Janissaries, after which he escaped into Hungary . About this time also flourished
See also:Nicholas Copernicus, a native of Thorn, one of the few Poles who have made themselves known beyond the limits of their country . The Poles
See also:call the period between 1548 and 1606 their
See also:golden age . Poland was the great
See also:land of eastern
See also:Europe, and owing to the universal toleration encouraged by the
See also:government, Protestantism was widely spread . Many of the chief
See also:nobility were Calvinists, and the Socini came to reside in the country . All this, however, was to pass away under the great Jesuit re-
See also:action .
At Rakow in Poland was published thecatechism of the Socinian doctrines in 16o5 . The
See also:Jesuits made their appearance in Poland in 1564, and soon succeeded in getting the schools of the country into their hands . Besides extirpating the various sects of Protestants, they also busied themselves with destroying the Greek
See also:Church in Lithuania . Latin poetry was cultivated with great success by
See also:Clement Janicki (1516-1543), but the earliest poet of repute who wrote in Polish is Rej of Naglowice (1505–1569) . After a somewhat idle youth he betook himself to poetry . He was a
See also:Protestant, and among other religious
See also:works translated the Psalms . His best work was Zwierciadlo albo zywot poczciwego czlowieka (The
See also:Mirror or Life of an Honourable Man)—a somewhat tedious didactic piece . He was also the author of a kind of play—a mystery we may
See also:term it, and productions of this sort seem to have been
See also:common in Poland from a very early time—entitled Life of
See also:Joseph in
See also:Egypt . This piece is interesting merely from an antiquarian point of view; there is but little poetry in it . It teems with anachronisms; thus we have mention of the mass and
See also:organs, and also of a German servant . Lucas Goinicki (1527–1603) wrote many
See also:historical works, and Dworzanin polski, an imitation of the Cortegiano of
See also:Castiglione . Jan Kochanowski' (1530-1584), called the
See also:prince of Polish poets, came of a poetical
See also:family, having a
See also:brother, a
See also:cousin and a
See also:nephew who all enriched the literature of xoahanow- their country with some productions .
KochanowskiSki . studied for some time at the university of Padua, and also resided in Paris, where he made the acquaintance of
See also:Ronsard . Returning to Poland, he became in 1564 secretary to
See also:Augustus . He has left The
See also:Game of
See also:Chess, an imitation of
See also:Vida, and Proporzec albo hold pruski (The Standard or
See also:Investiture of Prussia), where he describes the fealty done by
See also:Albert of
See also:Brandenburg to Sigismund Augustus . He also executed a translation of the Psalms . He wrote a play—a piece of one
See also:act, with twelve scenes—The Despatch of the Greek Ambassadors . It is written in rhymeless five-
See also:foot iambics, and is altogether a product of the
See also:Renaissance, reminding us of some of the productions of
See also:Buchanan .
See also:Rhyme is employed in the choruses only . It was acted on the marriage of the chancellor Jan Zamoyski with Christine RadziwiH, in the presence of King
See also:Stephen and his wife, at Ujazdowo near Warsaw in 1578 . The poet's most popular work, however, is his Treny or " Lamentations," written on the
See also:death of his daughter
See also:Ursula . These beautiful elegies have been justly praised by
See also:Mickiewicz; they are enough to raise Kochanowski far above the level of a merely artificial poet . Besides poems in Polish, he also wrote some in Latin .
It will be observed that we get this
See also:double-sided authorship in many Polish writers . They composed for an exclusive. and learned circle, certainly not for the
See also:Jew, the German trader of the
See also:town, or the utterly illiterate
See also:peasant . It may be said with truth of Kochanowski that, although the form of his poetry is classical and imitated from classical writers, the
See also:matter is Polish, and there is much national feeling in what he has left us . Mention must also be made of his epigrams, which he styled " Trifles " (Fraszki); they are full of spirit and geniality .
See also:Stanislaus Grochowski (1554–1612) was a
See also:priest; but his poetry is of little merit, although he was celebrated in his time as a writer of panegyrics . His satire Babie K.olo (The
See also:Women's Circle) gave offence on account of its personalities . A great
See also:partisan of the Catholics in the time of Sigismund III. was Caspar Miaskowski, whose Waleta Wloszlzonowska (Farewell to his Native Country) deserves mention . Szarzynski, who died
See also:young in 1581, deserves
See also:notice as having introduced the His collected works were printed in 1584; they were many times reprinted, the best edition being that of Warsaw (4 vols., '884) . His life was written by Przyborowski (Posen, 1857).sonnet to the Poles . This
See also:species of poetry was afterward to be carried to great perfection by Mickiewicz and Gaszynski . Szymonowicz (1554–1624) was a writer of good pastorals . Although they are imitated from classical writers, he has introduced many scenes of national life, which he describes with much vigour .
Among the best are szynono- " WicZ . The Lovers," " The Reapers," and " The Cake " (Kolacz) . Mickiewicz is very loud in his praise, and considers him one of the best followers of
See also:Theocritus . The
See also:condition, however, of the Polish peasants was too miserable to admit of their being easily made subjects for bucolic poetry . There is an artificial air about the idylls of Szymonowicz which makes one feel too keenly that they are productions of the Renaissance; one of their best features is the humane spirit towards the miserable peasantry which they every-where display . Another excellent writer of pastorals was Zimorowicz, a native of Lemberg, who died at the early age of twenty-five . Some of his
See also:short lyrics are very elegant, and remind us of
See also:Herrick and Carew—e.g. that beginning " Ukochana Lancelloto ! Ciebie nie proszg o zloto." Another writer of pastorals, but not of equal merit, was Jan Gawinski, a native of Cracow . Some good Latin poetry was written by Casimir Sarbiewski, better known in the west of Europe as Sarbievius (d . 1640) . He was considered to have approached Horace more nearly than any other
See also:modern poet, and a gold medal was given him by Pope Urban VIII . Martin Kromer (1512–1589) wrote a history of Poland in
See also:thirty books, and another
See also:volume, giving a description of the country and its institutions—both in Latin .
The history is written in an easy style and is a work of great merit . A poet of some importance wasSebastian
See also:Fabian Klonowicz (1545–1602), who latinized his name into Acernus, Klon being the Polish for
See also:maple, and wrote in both Latin and Polish, and through his inclination to reform drew down on himself the anger of the
See also:clergy . Some-times he is descriptive, as in his Polish poem entitled Flis (" The Boatman "), in which he gives a detailed account of the scenery on the
See also:banks of the Vistula . There is some poetry in this composition, but it alternates with very prosaic details . In another piece, Rhoxolania, in Latin, he describes the beauties of Galicia . Occasionally he is didactic, as in Worek Judaszow (The Bag of Judas) and
See also:Victoria deorum, where, under the allegory of the gods of
See also:Olympus, he represents the struggles of parties in Poland, not without severely satirizing the nobility and ecclesiastics . A curious work called Quincunx, written by Orzechowski (1515–1566), is concerned with religious polemics . Andrew Modrzewski, a Protestant, in his work De republica emendanda (1551), recommended the
See also:establishment of a national church which should be
See also:independent of Rome, something upon the model of the
See also:Anglican . A florid Jesuitical style of oratory became very popular in the time of Sigismund III., not without rhetorical power, but frequently becoming
See also:tawdry . The chief representa-
See also:skarga. tive of this school was Piotr Skarga . (1536-1612), one of the
See also:main agents in extirpating Calvinism in Poland and the Greek Church in Lithuania . Among his numerous writings may be mentioned Lives of the
See also:Saints, Discourses on the Seven Sacraments, and especially his sermons preached before the
See also:diet, in which he lashed the Poles for their want of patriotism and prophesied the downfall of the country .
Mecherzynski, in his " History of Eloquence in Poland " (Historya wymowy w Polsce), especially praises his two funeral sermons on the
See also:burial of Anna Jagiellonka, widow of Stephen Batory, and Anna of
See also:Austria, first wife of Sigismund III . Besides the Latin histories of Wapowski and Gwagnin (Guagnini, of Italian origin), we have the first historical work in Polish by Martin Bielski, a Protestant, viz . Kronika polska, which was afterwards continued by his son . The author was born in 1495 on his
See also:estate, Biala, and was educated, like so many other of his illustrious contemporaries, at the university of Cracow . He lived to the age of eighty; but, however great were the merits of his Chronicle, it was long considered a suspicious book on account of the leanings of the author to Calvinism . After his death his work was continued by his son
See also:Joachim (1540-1599) . There is also a Chronicle by Bartholomew Paprocki . In 1582 was also published the Chronicle of Stryjkowski, full of curious learning, and still of great use to the student of history . Five years later appeared the Annales Poloniae of Sarnicki . The last three works are in Latin . A few words may be said here about the spread of
See also:Pro- testantism in Poland, which is so intimately mixed up with the development of the national language . The spread of doctrines of Hus had entered the country in very Protestant- ism, early times, and we find Polish recensions of Bohemian
See also:hymns; even the hymn to the Virgin previously mentioned is supposed to have a Czech basis .
The bishops were soon active against those who refused to conform to the doctrines of the
See also:Roman church . Thus we find that Bishop Andrew of Bnin seized five Hussite priests and caused them to be burnt in the market of Posen in 1439 . A
See also:hundred years afterwards a certain Katharina Malcher, on account of her Utraquist opinions, was condemned by Gamrat, the bishop of Cracow, to be burnt, which
See also:sentence was accordingly carried out in the ragmarket at Cracow . As early as 1530 Lutheran hymns were sung in the Polish language at Thorn . In
See also:Konigsberg, John Seklucyan, a
See also:personal friend of
See also:Luther, published a collection of Christian Songs . He was born in Great Poland, and was at first a Roman Catholic priest in Posen, but afterwards embraced the Protestant faith and was invited by Duke Albert as a preacher to Konigsberg, where he died in 1578 . He executed the first translation of the New Testament in 155r . Four years afterwards appeared a complete Polish Bible published by Scharffenberg at Cracow . In x553 appeared at Brzesc the Protestant translation of the whole Bible made by a
See also:committee of learned men and divines, and published at the expense of Nicholas RadziwiH, a very
See also:rich Polish magnate who had embraced the Protestant doctrines . This book is now of great rarity because his son Christopher, having been induced to become a Roman Catholic by the Jesuit Skarga, caused all copies of his father's Bible which he could find to be burnt . One, however, is to be seen in the Bodleian Library, and another in the library of Christ Church at
See also:Oxford . A Socinian Bible was issued by
See also:Simon Budny in 1570 at Nieswiez, as he professed to find many faults in the version issued under the patronage of RadziwiH; in 1597 appeared the Roman Catholic version of the Jesuit Wujek; and in 1632 the so-called
See also:Danzig Bible, which is in use among Protestants and is still the most frequently reprinted .
Up to this time Polish literature, although frequently rhe- torical and too much tinctured with classical influences, had still exhibited signs of
See also:genius . But now, owing to the frivolous studies introduced by the Jesuits, the so-called macaronic period supervened, which lasted from 1606 to 1764, and was a time of great degradation for the language and literature . The former was now mixed with Latin and classical expressions; much of the literature
See also:con- sists of fulsome
See also:panegyric, verses written on the marriages and funerals of nobles, with conceits and fantastic ideas, devoid of all taste,
See also:drawn from their coats of arms . The poets of this period are, as may be imagined, in most cases mere rhymesters; there are, however; a few whose names are worth recapitulating, such as Waciaw Potocki (c . 1622-c . 1696), now known to have been the author of the Wojna Chocimska, or " War of Khotin," the same
See also:campaign which afterwards formed the subject of the epic of Krasicki . At first the author was supposed to have been Andrew Lipski, but the real poet was traced by the his- torian Szajnocha . The epic, which remained in manuscript till 185o, is a genuine
See also:representation of Polish life; no picture so faithful appeared till the
See also:Pan Tadeusz of Mickiewicz . More- over, Potocki had the good taste to avoid the macaronic style so much in vogue; his language is pure and vigorous . He does not hesitate to introduce occasionally satirical remarks on the luxury of the times, which he compares, to its disadvantage, with the simplicity of the old Polish life . There is also another poem attributed to Potocki called the New Mercury . In one passage he censures King Michael for ceding
See also:Podolia to the Turks .
See also:Samuel Twardowski (1600-166o) was the most prolific poet of the period of the Vasas . His most important poem is Wladystaus IV., King of Poland, in which he sings in a very bombastic
See also:strain the various expeditions of the Polish monarch . A bitter satirist appeared in the
See also:person of Christopher Opalinski (1609-1656) . His works were published under the title of Juvenalis redivivus, and, although boasting but little poetical merit, give us very curious pictures of the times . Hieronymus
See also:Vespasian Kohcowski (1633-1699) was a soldier-poet, who went through the
See also:campaigns against the Swedes and Cossacks; he has left several books of lyrics full of vivacity, a Christian epic and a Polish psalmody . Another poet was Andrew Morsztyn (born about 162o, died about the commencement of the 18th century), an astute courtier, who was
See also:minister (podskdrbi) under John Casimir, and was a devoted adherent of the French party at
See also:court, in consequence of which, in the reign of Sobieski, he was compelled to leave his native country and settle in France . His poems are elegant and
See also:free from the conceits and pedantry of the earlier writers . In fact, he introduced into Poland the easy French manner of such writers as Voiture . He translated the
See also:Cid of Corneille, and wrote a poem on the subject of
See also:Psyche, based upon the well-known Greek myth . History in the macaronic period made a backward step: it had been written in the Polish language in the golden age; it was now again to take a Latin form, as in the Chronica Gestarum in
See also:Europa singularium of tlib ecclesiastic Paul Piasecki (1580-1649), who is an authority for the reigns of Sigismund III. and
See also:Wladislaus IV., and Rudawski, who describes events from the accession of John Casimir to the peace of
See also:Oliva (1648-166o); and as valuable materials for history may be mentioned the five huge volumes of Andrew
See also:Chrysostom Zaluski (1711), bishop of Warmia . This work is entitled Epistolae historicofamiliares . It would be impossible to recapitulate here the great quantity of material in the shape of memoirs which has come down, but mention must be made of those of John Chrysostom Pasek, a nobleman of Masovia, who has left us very graphic accounts of life and society in Poland; after a variety of adventures and many a well-fought
See also:battle, he returned to the neighbourhood of Cracow, where he died between 1699 and 1701 .
Some of the most characteristic stories illustrating Polish history are drawn from this book . A later period, that of the miserableepoch of Augustus III., is described very graphic-ally in the memoirs of Matuszewicz, first edited by Pawinski at Warsaw in 1876 .
See also:Relating to the same period are also the memoirs of Bartholomew Michalowski (Pamietniki Bartlomieja Michalowskiego) . A curious insight into the course of education which a young Polish nobleman underwent is furnished by the instructions which
See also:James Sobieski, the father of the celebrated John, gave to Orchowski, the tutor of his sons . This has been twice printed in comparatively
See also:recent times (Instrukcya Jakoba Sobieskiego kasztelana Krakowskiego dana panu Orchowskiemu ze strony synOw, Vilna, 1840) . The old
See also:gentleman in his aristocratic imperiousness frequently reminds us of the amusing directions given by
See also:Sir John Wynne to his
See also:chaplain, quoted in
See also:Pennant's Tour in
See also:Wales . A History of the
See also:Lithuanians in Latin was published by the Jesuit Koialowicz; the first volume appeared at Danzig in 165o . A valuable work on the condition of Poland was written by Stanislaus Leszczynski, who was twice chosen king, entitled Glos wolny wolnosc ubezpieczajgcy (A Free
See also:Voice Guaranteeing Freedom), where he tells the Poles some homely and perhaps disagreeable truths illustrating the
See also:maxim Summa liberlas eliam perire volentibus . A notable man was Joseph Andrew Zaluski, bishop of Kiev, a Pole who had become thoroughly frenchified—so much so, that he preached in French to the fashionable congregations of Warsaw . He collected a splendid library of about 300,000 volumes and 15,000
See also:manuscripts, which he bequeathed to the Polish nation; but it was afterwards carried off to St
See also:Petersburg, where it formed the foundation of the imperial public library . According to Nitschmann in his Geschichte der polnischen Macaronic Period . Litteratur—a work which has been of service in the preparation of this article—the books were transported to Russia very carelessly, and many of them injured by the way .
It was especially rich in works relating to Polish history . Konarski edited in six volumes a valuable work entitled Volumina ,legum, containing a complete collection of Polish
See also:laws from the time of the
See also:statute of Wislica: He did much good also in founding throughout the country schools for the education of the sons of the upper classes, but as yet nothing had been done for popular education properly so-called . About the close of this period we have some valuable writers on Polish history, which now began to be studied critically, such as Hartknoch in his Alt- and Neues Preussen (1684), a work in which are preserved interesting specimens of the old Prussian language, and Lengnich (1689-17?4), author of the valuable
See also:Jus publicum regni Poloniae, which appeared in 1742 . We now come to the reign of the last Polish king, Stanislaus Poniatowski, and the few quiet years before the final division of the country, during which the French taste was all-powerful . This is the second great period of the development of Polish literature, which has known nothing of
See also:medieval romanticism . The literature of the first or Renaissance period gives us some good poets, who although occasionally imitators are not without national feeling, and a goodly array of chroniclers, most of whom made use of Latin . In the second or French period we get
See also:verse-makers rather than poets, who long to be Frenchmen, and sigh over the barbarism of their country; but the study of history in a critical spirit is beginning under the influence of Naruszewicz, Albertrandi and others . In the third period, that of modern romanticism, we get true nationalism, but it is too often the literature of
See also:exile and despair . Here may be mentioned, although living a little time before the reign of Stanislaus, a Polish poetess,
See also:Elizabeth Druzbacka (1695-1760), whose writings show a feeling for nature at a time when verse-making of the most artificial type was prevalent throughout the country . The portrait prefixed to the
See also:Leipzig edition of her works is a striking one, representing a
See also:hand-some, intellectual-looking woman, dressed in the garb of some religious
See also:order . Her Life of
See also:David in verse appears tedious, but many of the descriptions in the Seasons are elegant . Unfortunately she introduces latinisms, so that her Polish is by no means pure .
A nationaltheatre was founded at Warsaw in 1765 under the influence of the court, but it was not till long afterwards that anything really national connected with the drama appeared in Poland .
See also:Thomas Kajetan Wggierski (1755-1787), who was
See also:chamberlain to the king, enjoyed a considerable reputation among his countrymen for his satirical writing . He was a kind of Polish
See also:Churchill, and like his
See also:English parallel died young . His life also appears to have been as irregular as Churchill's . In consequence of an attack on the empress of Russia, he was compelled to leave Poland, and accordingly made a tour in Italy, France,
See also:America, and England, dying at
See also:Marseilles at the early age of thirty-three . His poetry shows the influence of the French taste, then prevalent throughout Europe . In times of great national disasters he deserves to be remembered as a true patriot; but the spirit of his poetry is altogether unwholesome . It is the wailing cry of a moribund nation . The great laureate of the court of Stanislaus was Trembecki (1722-1812), whose sympathies were too much with the Russian invaders of his country . He was little more than a fluent poetaster, and is now almost for-gotten . One of his most celebrated pieces was Zofjowka, written on the country seat of Felix Potocki, a Polish magnate, for this was the age of descriptive as well as didactic poetry . Perhaps the English gave the hint in such productions as "
See also:Hill." The old age of Trembecki appears to have been ignoble and neglected; he had indeed " fallen upon evil days and evil tongues "; and when he died at an advanced age all the gay courtiers of whom he had been the parasite were either dead or had submitted to the
See also:Muscovite yoke .
He comes before us as a belated epicurean, whose
See also:airy trifles cannot be warbled in an atmosphere surcharged with tempests and
See also:gunpowder . The end of the 18th century was not the period for a court poet in Poland . ' The most conspicuous poet, however, of the time was
See also:Ignatius Krasicki, bishop of Warmia (1735-1801) . He was the friend of
See also:Frederick the Great and a prominent member of Kras/c&i. the king's
See also:club at Sans Souci . Krasicki wrote an epic on the war of Khotin—the same as had furnished the subject of the poem of Potocki, of which Krasicki in all probability had never heard, and also that of the Dalmatian
See also:Gundulich . Krasicki's poem is at best but a dull affair, in fact a
See also:pale copy of a poor
See also:original, the Henriade of Voltaire . His
See also:mock heroics are, to say the least, amusing, and among these may be mentioned Myszeis, where he describes how King Popiel, according to the legend, was eaten up by rats . His Monachomachia is in six cantos, and is a satire upon the monks . The bishop was also the writer of some
See also:pretty good comedies . In fact most styles of composition were attempted by him—of course satires and fables among the number . He presents him-self to us much more like a transplanted French
See also:abbe than a Pole . In the year 1801 he travelled to Berlin, and died there after a short illness .
Among his other works the bishop published in 1781-1782, in two volumes, a kind of
See also:encyclopaedia of belles lettres entitled Zbior Wiadomosci . His estimates of various great poets are not very accurate . Of course he finds
See also:Shakespeare a very " incorrect " author, although he is willing to allow him considerable praise for his vigour . F . Morawski (1783-1861) published some excellent Fables (1800) in the manner of Krasicki, and in 1851 an epic entitled My Grandfather's
See also:Farm .
See also:Adam Naruszewicz (1733-1796) was bishop and poet . The existence of so many ecclesiastical writers was a natural feature in Polish literature; they formed the only really cultured class in the community, which consisted besides of a haughty ignorant nobility living among their
See also:serfs, and (at a vast distance) those serfs themselves, in a brutalized condition . Burghers there were, properly speaking, none, for most of the citizens in the large towns were foreigners governed by the Jus magdeburgicum . Naruszewicz has not the happy vivacity of Krasicki; he attempts all kinds of poetry, especially satire and
See also:fable . He is at best but a mediocre poet; but he has succeeded better as a historian, and especially to be praised is his " History of the Polish Nation " (Historya narodu polskiego), which, however, he was not able to carry further than the year 1386 . He also wrote an account of the Polish general
See also:Chodkiewicz, and translated Tacitus and Horace . Interesting memoirs have been published by Kilinski, a Warsaw shoemaker, and Kosmian, state referendary, who lived about this time and saw much of the War of Independence and other
See also:political affairs .
Among the smaller poets of this period may be mentioned Karpinski (1741-1828), a writer of sentimental elegies in the style then so very much infashion, and Franciszek Dyonizy Kniainin (1750-1807), who nourished his muse on classical themes and wrote several plays . He was the court poet of Prince Adam
See also:Czartoryski at Pulawy, and furnished odes in
See also:commemoration of all the important events which occurred in the
See also:household . He lost his reason on the down-fall of Poland, and died after eleven years' insanity in 1807 . Julian Ursin
See also:Niemcewicz (1758-1841) was one of the most popular of Polish poets at the commencement of the present century (see NIEMCEWICZ) . His most popular work is the " Collection of Historical Songs " (Spiewy historyczne), where he treats of the chief heroes of Polish history . Besides these he wrote one or two good plays, and a novel in letters, on the story of two Jewish lovers . John Paul Woronicz (1757-1829) born in
See also:Volhynia, and at the close of his life bishop of Warsaw and primate of Poland, was a very eloquent divine, and has been called the modern Skarga . A valuable worker in the
See also:field of Slavonic
See also:philology was Linde, the author of an excellent Polish
See also:dictionary in six volumes . For a long time the cultivation of Polish philology was in a low state, owing to the prevalence of Latin in the 17th century and French in the 18th . No Polish grammar worthy of the name appeared till that of Kopczynski at the close of the 18th century, but the reproach has been taken away in modern times by the excellent works by Malecki and Malinowski . Rakowiecki, who edited the Rousskaia Pravda, and Macieiowski (who died in 1883, aged ninety), author of a valuable work on Slavonic law, may here be mentioned . Here we have a complete survey of the leading codes of Slavonic
See also:jurisprudence .
At a later period (in 1856) appeared the work of Helcel, Starodawne prawa polskiego pomniki (" Ancient Memorials of Polish Law ") . Aloysius Felifiski (1771-1820) produced an historical tragedy,
See also:Barbara Radziwill, and some good comedies were written by Count Polish
See also:Alexander Fredro (1793-1876) . In fact Fredro may Drama. be considered the most entertaining writer for the stage which Poland has produced . He introduced genuine
See also:comedy among his countrymen . The influence of
See also:Moliere can be very clearly seen in his pieces; his youth was spent chiefly in France, where he formed one of the soldiers of the Polish
See also:legion of
See also:Napoleon and joined in the expedition to Russia . His first production was Pan Geldhab, written in 1819 and produced at Warsaw in 1821 . From 1819 to 1835 he wrote about seventeen pieces and then abandoned publishing, having taken offence at some severe criticisms . At his death he left several comedies, which were issued in a
See also:posthumous edition . There is a good deal of
See also:local colouring in the pieces of Fredro; although the style is French, the characters are taken from Polish life . From him may be said to date the formation of anything like a national Polish theatre, so that his name marks an epoch . The Poles, like many of the other nations of Europe, had religious plays at an early period . They were originally performed in churches; but Pope Innocent II. finding
See also:fault with this arrangement, the acting was transferred to churchyards .
Mention has already been made of plays written by Rej and Kochanowski; they are mere fruits of the Renaissance, and cannot in any way be considered national . The wife of John Casimir, a French-woman,
See also:Marie Louise, hired a
See also:troop of French actors and first familiarized the Poles with something which resembled the modern stage . The Princess Franciszka Radziwill composed plays which were acted at her private residence, but they are spoken of as inartistic and long and tedious . The national theatre was really founded in the reign of Stanislaus Augustus; and good plays were produced by Bohomolec, Kaminski, Kropinski, Boguslawski, Zabiocki, and others . Perhaps, however, with the exception of the works of Fredro, the Poles have not produced anything of much merit in this
See also:line . A great states-man and writer of the later days of Polish
See also:nationality was Kollataj, born at
See also:Sandomir in 1750 . He was a man of liberal sentiments, and, had his plans been carried out, Poland might have been saved . He wished to abolish serfdom and throw open state employments to all . The nobility, however, were too infatuated to be willing to adopt these wise
See also:measures . Like the French aristocrats with the reforms of
See also:Necker, they would not listen till ruin had overtaken them . During the last war of Poland as an independent country Kollataj betook himself to the
See also:camp of Kosciuszko, but when he saw that there was no longer hope he went to Galicia, but was captured by the Austrians and imprisoned at
See also:Olmutz till 1803 . He died in 1812 .
An active co-operator with Kollataj was Salesius Jezierski, who founded clubs for the discussion of political questions, and Stanislaus Staszic, who did much for education and improved the condition of the university of Warsaw . The reputation of all preceding poets in Poland was now destined to be thrown into the shade by the appearance of Mickiewicz (1798-1855), the great introducer of romanticism into the country (see MICKIEWICZ) . Poland, as has been said before, is not rich in national songs and legendary poetry, in which respect it cannot com-
See also:pare with its
See also:sister Slavonic countries Russia and
See also:Servia . Collec- tions have appeared, however, by Waclaw Zaleski, who writes under the pseudonyms of Waclaw z Oleska, Wojcicki, Roger, Zegota
See also:Pauli, and especially Oskar
See also:Kolberg . Poland and Lithuania, however, abounded with superstitions and legends which only awaited the coming poet to put them into verse . In the year 1851 Ron-maid Ziefikiewicz published Songs of the Romanticism People of
See also:Pinsk, and collections have even appeared of those of the Kashoubes, a remnant of the Poles living near Danzig, Mickiewicz had had a predecessor, but of far less
See also:talent, Casimir Brodzinski (1791-1835) . He served under Napoleon in the Polish legion, and has left a small collection of poems, the most important being the
See also:idyl Wieslaw, in which the
See also:manners of the peasants of the
See also:district of Cracow are faithfully portrayed . The second great poet of the romantic school who appeared in Poland after Mickiewicz was
See also:Julius Slowacki (1809-1849), born at Krzemieniec . In 1831 he left his native country and
See also:chose Paris as his residence, where he died . His writings are full of the
See also:fire of youth, and show great beauty and elegance of expression . We can trace in them the influence of
See also:Byron and Victor Hugo . He is justly considered one of the greatest of the modern poets of Poland .
His most celebrated pieces are Hugo; Mnich (" The Monk "); Lambro, a Greek
See also:corsair, quite in the style of Byron; Anheili, a very Dantesque poem expressing under the form of an allegory the sufferings of Poland; Krol
See also:duck (" The Spirit King "), another mysterious and allegorical poem; Waclaw, on the same subject as the Marya of Malczewski, to be afterwards noticed; Beniowski, a long poem in ottava rima on this
See also:strange adventurer, something in the style of Byron's humorous poems; Kordyan, of the same school as the English poet's
See also:Manfred; Lilla Weneda, a poem dealing with the early period of Slavonic history . The life of Slowacki has been published by
See also:Professor Anton Malecki in two volumes . Mickiewicz and Slowacki were both more or less mystics, but even more we may assign this characteristic to Sigismund Krasinski, who was born in 1812 at Paris, and died there in 1859 . It would be impossible to analyse here his extraordinary poem Nieboska komedja (" The Undivine Comedy "), Irydion, and others . In them Poland, veiled under different allegories, is always the central figure . They are powerful poems written with great vigour of language, but enveloped in clouds of mysticism . The life of Krasinski was embittered by the fact that he was the son of General Vincent Krasinski, who had become unpopular among the Poles by his adherence to the Russian government; the son wrote anonymously in consequence, and was therefore called " The Unknown Poet." Among his latest productions are his " Psalms of the Future " (Psalmy przyszlosci), which were attacked by the democratic party as a defence,of aristocratic views which had already ruined Poland . His friend Slowacki answered them in some taunting verses, and this led to a
See also:quarrel between the poets . One of the most striking pieces of Krasinski has the title " Resurrecturis." The sorrows of his country and his own
See also:physical sufferings have communicated a melancholy
See also:tone to the writings of Krasinski, which read like a
See also:dirge, or as if the poet stood always by an open grave—and the
See also:grave is' that of Poland . He must be considered as, next to Mickiewicz, the greatest poet of the country . Other poets of the romantic school of considerable merit were Gorecki, Witwicki, Odyniec, and Gaszynski; the last-named wrote many exquisite sonnets, which ought alone to embalm his name . Witwicki (1800-1847) was son of a professor at Krzemieniec .
He was a writer of
See also:ballads and poems dealing with rural life, which enjoyed great popularity among his countrymen and had the good
See also:fortune to be set to
See also:music by Chopin . The works of Lelewel have
See also:separate mention (see LELEWEL); but here may be specified the labours of Narbutt, Dzieje starozytne arodu litewskiego (" Early History of the Lithuanian People "), published at Vilna in nine volumes, and the valuable Monumenta Poloniae historica, edited at Lemberg by Bielowski, of which several volumes have appeared, containing reprints of most of the early chroniclers . Bielowski died in 1876 . A further development of romanticism was the so-called
See also:Ukraine school of poets, such as Malczewski, Goszczynski, and Zaleski . Anton Malczewski (1793-1826) wrote Ukraine one poem, Marya, a Ukrainian
See also:tale which passed School. unnoticed at the time of its publication, but after its author's death became very popular . Malczewski was one of Napoleon's
See also:officers; he led a wandering life and was intimate with Byron at Venice; he is said to have suggested to the latter the story of Mazeppa . Marya is a narrative in verse in the manner of Byron . It is written with much feeling and elegance, and in a most harmonious metre . The chief poem is Severin Goszczynski (1803–1876) is Zamek Kaniowski (" The Tower of Kaniow ") . The most interesting poem of Bogdan Zaleski is his " Spirit of the Steppe " (Duch od stepu) . Other poets of the so-called Ukraine school, which has been so well inspired by the romantic legends of that part of Russia, are Thomas or Timko Padoura (who also wrote in the Malo-Russian, or Little-Russian, language), .Alexander Groza, and Thomas Olizarowski . For many of the original songs and legends we must turn to the work of Messrs Antonovich and Dragomanov .
Bogdan Joseph Zaleski was born in 18oa in the Ukraine
See also:village, Bohaterka . In 182o he was sent to the university of Warsaw, where he had Goszczynski as a
See also:fellow student . Besides the longer poem previously mentioned, he is the author of many charming lyrics in the style of the Little Russian poems, such as Shevchenko has written in that language . He died at Villepreux, in France, in 1886, after more than fifty years of exile . Michael Grabowski (1805–1863) belongs also to this school by his
See also:fine Melodies of the Ukraine (1828) .
See also:Maurice Goslawski also won fame by his Poems of a Polish Outlaw in the struggle of 183o-1831 . A poet of great vigour was Stephen Garczynski (1806–1833), the friend of Mickiewicz, celebrated for his War Sonnets and his poem entitled The Deeds of Wactaw . Wincenty Poi (1807–1872) was born at
See also:Lublin, and though of foreign extraction by both parents proved an ardent patriot . He wrote a fine descriptive work, Obrazy z zycia i podrozy (" Pictures of Life and Travel "), and also a poem, Piesn o ziemi naszej (" Song of our Land ") . For about three years from 1849 he was professor of geography in the university of Cracow . In 1855 he published Mohort, a poem relating to the times of Stanislaus Poniatowski . Lndwik Wiadyslaw Kondratowicz (who wrote chiefly under the name of Syrokomla) was born in 1823 in the government of
See also:Minsk, and died on the 15th of
See also:September 1862 at Vilna .
His parents were poor, and he received a meagre education, but made up for it by careful self-culture . One of his most remarkable poems is his Jan Dcborog in which, like Mickiewicz, he has well described the scenery of his native Lithuania . He everywhere appears as the
See also:advocate of the suffering peasants, and has consecrated to them many beautiful lyrics . In Kaczkowski the Poles found a novelist who treated many periods of their history with great success . His sympathies, however, were mostly aristocratic, though modified by the
See also:desire of progress . An important writer of history is Karl Szajnocha (1818--1868), born in Galicia of Czech parents . He began his labours with The Age of Casimir the Great (1848), and Boleslaw the Brave (1849), following these with Jadwiga and Jagiello, in three volumes (1855–1856)—a work which Spasovich, in his Russian History of Slavonic Literature, compares in vigour of style and fullness of
See also:colour with Macaulay's History of England and
See also:Thierry's Norman
See also:Conquest . Our author was still further to resemble the latter writer in a great misfortune; from overwork he lost his sight in 1857 . Szajnocha, however, like Thierry and the
See also:American Prescott, did not abandon his studies . His excellent memory helped him in his affliction . In 1858 he published a work in which he traced the origin of Poland from the Varangians (Lechicki poczatek polski), thus making them identical in origin with the Russians . He began to write the history of John Sobieski, but did not live to finish it. dying in 1868, soon after completing a history of the Cossack
See also:wars, Dwa
See also:late dziejow naszych (" Two Years of Our History") .
A writer of romances of considerable power was Joseph Korzeniowski (1797–1863), tutor in early youth to the poet Krasifiski, and afterwards director of a school at
See also:Kharkov . Besides some plays now forgotten, he was author of some popular novels, such as Wedrowki oryginata ("
See also:Tours of an Original "), 1848;Garbaty (" The Hunchback "), 1852, &c . But the most fertile of Polish authors was J . I . Kraszewski (q.v.) . His works constitute a library in themselves; they are chiefly historical and political novels, some or which treat of early times in Poland, and some of its condition under the Saxon kings . As lyrical poets may also be mentioned Jachowicz; Jaskowski, author of a fine poem, The Beginning of Winter; Edmund Wasilewski (1814–1846), the author of many popular songs ; and Holowinski, archbishop of
See also:Mogilev (1807–1855), author of religious poems . The style of poetry in vogue in the Polish parts of Europe at the present time is chiefly lyrical . Other writers deserving mention are Cornelius Ujejski (1823-1897), the poet of the last revolt of 1863;
See also:Theophilus Lenartowicz (born 1822), who wrote some very graceful poetry; Sigismund Milkowski (T . T . Tez, born in 182o), author of romances drawn from Polish history, for the novel of the school of Sir Walter
See also:Scott still flourishes vigorously among the Poles . Among the very numerous writers of romances may be mentioned
See also:Henry Rzewuski (1791–1866) ; Joseph Dzierzkowski wrote novels on aristocratic life, and Michael Czajkowski (1808–1876) romances of the Ukraine;
See also:Valerius Wieloglowski (1865) gave pictures of country life .
In 1882 the Poles lost, in the
See also:prime of life, a very promising historian Szujski (born in 1835), and also Schmitt, who died in his sixty-
See also:sixth year . Szujski commenced his literary career in 18J9 with poems and dramas; in 1860 appeared his first historical production, Rzut oka na Historye Polski (" A Glance at Polish History "), which attracted universal
See also:attention; and in 1862 he commenced the publication in parts of his work Dzieje Polski (" The History of Poland "), the printing of which ceased in 1866 . The value of this book is great both on account of the research it displays and its philosophical and unprejudiced style . One of the last works of Szujski, written in German, Die Polen and Ruthenen in Galizien, attracted a great deal of attention at the time of its appearance . Schmitt got mixed up with some of the political questions of the
See also:day —he was a native of Galicia and therefore a subject of the
See also:Austrian emperor—and was sentenced to death in 1846, but the
See also:penalty was commuted into imprisonment in Spielberg, whence he was re-leased by the revolution of 1848 . In 1863 he took part in the Polish
See also:rebellion, and was compelled to fly to Paris, where he only returned in 1871 . His chief works are History of the Polish People from the Earliest Times to the year 1763 (1854), History of Poland in the 18th and 1gth Centuries (1866), and History of Poland from the time of the
See also:Partition (1868), which he carried down to the year 1832 . In opposition to the opinion of many historians, his contemporaries, that Poland fell through the nobility and the diets, Schmitt held (as did Lelewel) that the country was brought to ruin by the kings, who always preferred dynastic interests to those of the country, and by the pernicious influence of the Jesuits . Adalbert Ketrzyfiski, who succeeded Bielowski in 1877 in his
See also:post of director of the Ossolinski Institute at Lemberg, is the author of some valuable monographs on the history of Poland . He was born in 1838 . Casimir Stadnicki has treated of the period of the Jagielions; and Szaraniewicz, professor at the university of Lemberg, has written on the early history of Galicia . Thaddeus Wojciechowski has published a
See also:clever work on Slavonic antiquities .
See also:Xavier Liske, born in 1838, professor of universal history at Lemberg, has published many historical essays of considerable value, and separate works by him have appeared in the German, Polish,
See also:Swedish, Danish and
See also:languages . The "
See also:Sketch of the History of Poland " (Dzieje Polskie w zarysie) by Michael Bobrzyfiski, born in 1849 in Cracow (professor of Polish and German law), is a very spirited work, and has given rise to a great deal of controversy on account of the opposition of many. of its views to those of the school of Lelewel . Vincent Zakrzewski professor of history at Cracow, has written some works which have attracted considerable attention, such as On the Origin and Growth of the Reformation in Poland, and After the
See also:Flight of King Henry, in which he describes the condition of the country during the period between that king's departure from Poland and the election of Stephen Batory . Smolka has published a history entitled Mieszko the Elder and his Age . Wiadyslaw Wislocki has prepared a
See also:catalogue of manuscripts in the Jagiellon library at Cracow . Dr Joseph Casimir Plebafiski, besides editing the Biblioteka warszawska, a very valuable literary journal which stands at the
See also:head of all works of the kind in Poland, has also written a dissertation (in Latin) on the liberum
See also:veto, which puts that institution in a new light . Felix Jezierski, the previous editor of the above-mentioned journal, published in it transir.tions of parts of
See also:Homer, and is also the author of an excellent version of
See also:Faust . The history of Polish literature has not been neglected . We first have the early history of Felix Bentkowski (1781–1852), followed by that of Michael Wiszniewski (1794–1865), which, how-ever, only extends to the 17th century, and is at best but a
See also:quarry of materials for subsequent writers, the style being very heavy . A " History of Eloquence " (Historya wymowy w Polsce) was published by Karl Mecherzyski . An elaborate history of Polish literature has been written by Anton Malecki, who is the author of the best Polish grammar (Gramatyka historyczno-porownawcza jezyka polskiego, 2 vols., Lemberg, 1879) . The Polish bibliography of Karl Estreicher, director of the Jagielion library at Cracow, is a work of the highest importance .
One of the most active writers on Polish philology and literature is Wladyslaw Nehring, whose numerous contributions to the Archiefur slavische Philologie of Professor Jagic entitle him to the gratitude of all who have devoted themselves to Slavonic studies . \Vladimir Spasowicz, a lawyer of St Petersburg, assisted Pipin in his valuable work on Slavonic literature . The lectures of Professor Cybulski (d . 1867) on Polish literature in the first
See also:half of the 19th century are written with much spirit and appreciation . The larger poetical works which appear during that time are carefully analysed . In recent times many interesting
See also:geological and anthropological investigations have been carried on in Poland . In 1868 Count
See also:Constantine Tyszkiewicz published a valuable monograph on the Tombs of Lithuania and Western Ruthenia . And Professor Joseph +.epkowski, of Cracow, has greatly enriched the archaeological museum of his native city . In philosophy the Poles (as the Slays generally) have produced but few remarkable names .
See also:Goluchowski, the
See also:brothers Andrew and John Sniadecki, the latter of whom gained a reputation almost
See also:European, Bronislaw Trentowski, Karol Liebelt and Joseph Kremer deserve mention .
See also:August Cieszkowski has written on philosophical Vistula," or occasionally as the " territory on the Vistula." It is bounded N. by the Prussian provinces of West and East Prussia, W. by those of Posen and Prussian
See also:Silesia, S. by the Austrian crownland of Galicia, and E. by the Russian governments of Volhynia, Vilna,
See also:Grodno, and Kovno . Physical Features.—The territory consists for the most part of an undulating plain, 300 to 450 ft. above the
See also:sea, which connects the lowlands of Brandenburg on the west with the great plain of central Russia on the east .
A low swelling separates it from the Baltic Sea; while in thesouth it rises gradually to a series and economic subjects .
See also:Moritz Straszewski, professor of philosophy at the university of Cracow, has also published some remarkable works . Mention has already been made of the poetess Elizabeth Druzbacka .
See also:Female writers are not very common among Slavonic nations . Perhaps the most celebrated Polish authoress was Klementina
See also:Hoffmann, whose
See also:maiden name was Tanska, born at Warsaw in 1798 . She married Karl Boromaus Hoffmann, and accompanied her
See also:husband, in 1831, to Passy near Paris, where she died in 1845 . Her novels still enjoy great popularity in Poland . Of the poetesses of later times Gabriele Narzyssa Zmichowska (1825-1878), Maria Ilnicka, translator of Scott's Lord of the Isles, and Jadwiga Luszczewska may be mentioned . A poet of considerable merit is Adam Asnyk (1838-1897) . In his poetry we seem to trace the steps between romanticism and the modern realistic school, such as we see in the Russian poet Nekrasov . In some of the flights of his muse he reminds us of Slowacki, in the melody of his verse of Zaleski . Besides showing talent as a poet, he has also written some good plays, as " The Jew " (Zid), Cola di
See also:Rienzi, and Kiejstut .
Other poets worthy of mention are Zagorski, Czerwienski, and Maria Konopnicka, who has published two volumes of poems that have been very favourably noticed . Mention must also be made of Balucki (1837-1901), author of novels and comedies, and Narzymski (1839-1872), who was educated in France, but spent part of his short life in Cracow, author of some very popular tales . The four centres of Polish literature, which, in spite of the attempts which have been made to denationalize the country, is fairly active, are Cracow, Posen, Lemberg and Warsaw . A cheap sdition of the leading Polish classics, well adapted for dissemination among the people, has been published, under the title of Biblioteka Polska, at Cracow . Not only are the professors of Cracow University some of the most eminent living Poles, but it has been chosen as aplace of residence by many Polish literary men . The academy of sciences, founded in 1872, celebrated the bicentenary of the raising of the
See also:siege of Vienna by Sobieski by publishing the valuable Acta Joannis III. regis Poloniae . Some good Polish works have been issued at Posen . At Lemberg, the capital of Austrian Galicia, there is an active Polish press . Here appeared the Monumenta Poloniae historica of Bielowski, previously mentioned; but Polish in this province has to struggle with the Red-Russian or Ruthenian, a language or dialect which for all
See also:practical purposes is the same as the
See also:Southern or Little Russian . At Warsaw, since the last insurrection, the university has become entirly Russianized, and its Transactions are published in Russian; but Polish works of merit still issue from the press—among others the leading Polish literary journal, Biblioteka warszawska . Perhaps the most popular modern writer in Poland is Eliza Orszeszko, of whose novels a complete "
See also:Jubilee " edition has appeared . Many of her tales—as, for instance, Argonauci (" The Argonauts ")—have appeared in the Tygodnik, or weekly illustrated journal of Warsaw .
See also:Meir Ezofowicz has enjoyed great popularity . The
See also:object of this tale is to
See also:bridge over the gulf between the Jew and Christian in Poland . Adolf Dygasinski writes clever village tales of the " kail-yard " school, as it has been sometimes termed in England . Waclaw Sieroszewski has written Twelve Years in the Land of the Jakuts, a contribution to the literature of folk-lore and
See also:ethnology such as only a real artist could produce . Among the latest poets' we may mention Wyspianski, Kisiliewski, Reymont, Mme Zapolska; the latter is the author of some powerful realistic novels and plays, and she has been called the Polish Zola . It is this kind of poetry and traces of the decadent school which we find in the later Polish poets . A pessimistic spirit is apparent, as in the writings of
See also:Wenceslaus Berent . Since the death of Asnyk and Ujejski the most prominent poet is Marya Konopnicka (1846) . Some good critical work has been done in the leading reviews by Swietochowski and others . Historical work has been produced by Hirschberg, Pappee, Sobieski, Czermak and others, and the histories of Polish literature by Stanislaus Tarnowski and Piotr Chmielowski are of the highest value, the former dealing more with the aesthetic side of literature and the latter with the historical . The Poles are busy in reviving their great past . Hence the
See also:enthusiasm for historical studies, and the Biblioteka pisarzow polskich, which shows us what abundance of literature was produced in Poland in the 16th and beginning of the 17th century .
See also:Sienkiewicz (q.v.), the historical novelist, Poland has a modern writer of European reputation .
POLISH SUCCESSION WAR (1733-1735)
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