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Originally appearing in Volume V05, Page 795 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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POLYCHAETA.—ThiS group may be thus defined and the definition contrasted and compared with those of the other divisions of the Chaetopoda. Setae always present and often very large, much varied in form and very numerous, borne by the dorsal and ventral parapodia (when present). The prostomium and the segments generally often bear processes sensory and branchial. Eyes often present and comparatively complicated in structure. Clitellum not present as a definite organ, as in Oligochaeta. The anus is mostly terminal, and there are no anterior and posterior suckers. Nervous system often imbedded in the epidermis. Vascular system generally present forming a closed system of tubes. Alimentary canal rarely coiled, occasionally with glands which are simple caeca and sometimes serve as air reservoirs; jaws often present and an eversible pharynx. Nephridia sometimes of the type of those of the Oligochaeta; in other cases short, wide tubes with a large funnel serving also entirely or in part as gonad ducts. Frequently reduced in number of pairs; rarely (Capitellidae) more than one pair per segment. Gonads not so restricted in position as in Oligochaets, and often more abundant; the individuals usually unisexual. No specialized system of spermathecae, sperm reservoirs, and copulatory apparatus, as in Oligochaeta; development generally through a larval form; reproduction by budding also occurs. Marine (rarely fresh-water) in habit. The Polychaeta contrast with the Oligochaeta by the great variety of outward form and by the frequency of specialization of different regions of the body. The head is always recognizable and much more conspicuous than in other Chaetopoda. As in the Oligochaeta the peristomial segment is often without setae; but this character is not by any means so constant as in the Oligochaeta. The prostomium bears often processes, both dorsal and ventral, which in the Sabellids are split into the circle of branchial plumes, which surround or nearly surround the mouth in those tube-dwelling Annelids. Tomopteris is remark-able for the fact that the hammer-shaped prostomium has paired ventral processes each with a single seta. It is held, however, that these are a pair of parapodia which have shifted forwards. The presence of parapodia distinguish this from other groups of Chaetopoda. Typically, the parapodium consists of two processes of the body on each side, each of which bears a bundle of setae; these two divisions of the " limb " are termed respectively notopodium and neuropodium. The notopodium may be rudimentary or absent and the entire parapodium reduced to the merest ridge or even completely unrepresented. Naturally, it is among the free living forms that the parapodium is best developed, and least developed among the tubicolous Polychaeta. To each division of the parapodium belongs typically a long tentacle, the cirrus, which may be defective upon one or other .of the noto- podium or neuropodium, and may be developed into an arborescent gill or into a flat scale-like process, the elytron (in Polynoe, &c.). There are other gills developed in addition to those which represent the cirri. Setae.—The setae of the Polychaeta are disposed in two bundles in many genera, but in only one bundle in such forms as have no notopodium (e.g. Syllis). In some genera the setae are in vertical rows, and in certain Capitellidae these rows so nearly meet that an arrange- ment occurs reminiscent of the continuous circle of setae in the perichaetous Oligo- chaeta. The setae vary much in form and are often longer and stronger than in the Oligo- chaetes. ointed setae and TMf" very short hooks or " uncini " (see fig. 3) are among the most remarkable forms. Simple bifid setae, such as those of Fm. 3.—a, Bristle of Pionosyllis Oligochaetes, are also present Malmgreni; b, Hook of Terebella. in certain forms. Among the burrowing and tubicolous forms it is not uncommon for the body to be distinguish-able into two or more regions; a " thorax," for example, is sharply marked off from an " abdomen " in the Sabellids. In these forms the bundles of setae are either capilliform or uncinate, and the dorsal setae of the thorax are like the ventral setae of the abdomen. It is a remarkable and newly-ascertained fact that in regeneration (in Potamilla) the thorax is not replaced by the growth of uninjured thoracic segments; but that the anterior segments of the abdomen take on the same characters, the setae dropping out and being replaced in accordance with the plan of the setae in the thorax of uninjured worms. Among the Oligochaeta the sexually mature worm is distinguished from the immature worm by the clitellum and by the development of genital setae. Among the Polychaeta the sexual worm is often more marked from the asexual form, so much so that these latter have been placed in different species or even genera. The alteration in form does not only affect structures used in generation; but the form of the parapodia, &c., alter. There are even dimorphic forms among the Syllids where the sexes are, as in many ' Polychaets, separate. Nephridia.—The nephridia of the Polychaeta have been generally dealt with above in considering the nephridial system of the Chaetooda as a whole. They contrast with those of the Oligochaeta and fIirudinea by reason of their frequently close association with the gonads, the same organ sometimes serving the two functions of excretion and conveyance of the ova and spermatozoa out of the body. On the hypothesis that such a form as Dinophilus (see Haplodrili) has preserved the characters of the primitive Chaetopod more nearly than any existing Polychaet or Oligochaet, it is clear that the nephridia in the Oligochaeta have preserved the original features of those organs more nearly than most Polychaeta. Thus Nereis among the latter worms, from the resemblance which its excretory system bears to that of the Oligochaeta, may be made the starting-point of a series. In this worm the paired nephridia exist in most of the segments of the body, and their form (see fig. 2) is much like that of the nephridia in the Enchytraeidae. The funnel, which is not large, appears to open, as a rule at least, into the segment in front of that which bears the external orifice. Quite independent of these are certain large dorsally situate funnel-like folds of the coelomic epithelium, ciliated, but of which no duct has been discovered leading to the exterior. It is possible that we have here gonad ducts distinct from nephridia which at the time of sexual maturity do open on to the exterior. In Polynoe the nephridia are short tubes with a slightly folded funnel whose lumen is intercellular, and this intercellular lumen is characteristic of the Polychaetes as contrasted with leeches and Oligochaetes. Among the Terebelloidea there is a remarkable differentiation of the nephridia into two series. One set lies in front of the diaphragm, which is the most anterior and complete septum, the rest having disappeared or being much less developed. The anterior nephridia, of which there are one to three pairs, contrast with the posterior series by their small funnels and large size, the posterior nephridia having a large funnel followed by a short tube. In Chaetozone setnsa the anterior nephridia occupy five segments. There is usually a gap between the two series, several segments beingwithout nephridia. It seems that the posterior nephridia are mainly gonad ducts, and the gonads are developed in close association with the funnels. The same arrangement is found in some other Polychaetes; for instance, in Sabellaria there is a single pair of large anterior nephridia, which open by a common pore, followed after an interval by large-funnelled and short nephridia. This differentiation is not, however, peculiar to the Polychaetes; for in several Oligochaetes the anterior nephridia are of large size, and opening as they do into the buccal cavity clearly play a different function to those which follow. In Thamnodrilus, as has been pointed out, there are two series of nephridia which resemble those of the Terebelloidea in the different sizes of their funnels. In Lanice conchilega the posterior series of nephridia are connected by a thick longitudinal duct, which seems to be seen in its most reduced form in Owenia, where a duct on each side runs in the epidermis, being in parts a groove, and receives one short tubular nephridium only and occupies only one segment. This connexion of successive nephridia (in Lanice) has its counterpart in Allolobophora, Lybiodrilus, and apparently in the Lumbriculids Teleuscolex and Styloscolex, among the Oligochaeta. Among the Capitellidae, which in several respects resemble the Oligochaeta, wide and short gonad ducts coexist in the same segments with nephridia, the latter being narrower and longer. It is noteworthy that in this family only among the Polychaeta, the nephridia are not restricted to a single pair in each segment; so that the older view that the gonad ducts are metamorphosed nephridia is not at variance with the anatomical facts which have been just stated. Alimentary Canal.—The alimentary canal sf Polychaetes is usually a straight tube running from the anterior mouth to the posterior anus. But in some forms, e.g. Sternaspis, the gut is coiled. In others, again, e.g. Cobangia, the anus is anterior and ventral. A gizzard is present in a few forms. The buccal cavity is sometimes armed with jaws. The oesophagus is provided often with caeca which in Syllids and Hesionidae have been found to contain air, and possibly therefore perform the function of the fish's air-bladder. In other Polychaetes one or more pairs of similar outgrowths are glandular. The intestine is provided with numerous branched caeca in Aphrodite. Reproduction.—As is the case with the Oligochaeta, the Polychaeta furnish examples of species which multiply asexually by budding. There is a further resem- blance between the two orders of Chae- topoda in that this budding is not a general pheno- menon,but con- fined to a few forms only. Budding, in fact, among the Polychaetes is limited to the family Syllidae. In the Oligochaetes it is only the families Aeoloso- matidae and Nai- didae that show the same phenomenon. It has been men. tioned that in the Nereids a sexual form occurs which differs structurally from the asexual worms, and was originally placed in a separate genus, Heteronereis; hence the name " Heteronereid " for the sexual worm. In Syllis there is also a " Heterosyllid" form in which the gonads are limited to a posterior region of the body which is further marked off from the anterior non-sexual segments by the oak-like setae. In some Syllids this posterior region separates off from the rest, producing a new head; thus a process of fission occurs which has been termed schizo- gamy. A similar life history distinguishes certain Sabellid worms, e.g. Filigrana. Among the Syllids this simple state of affairs is further complicated. In Autolytus there is, to begin with, a conversion of the posterior half of the body to form a sexual zooid. But before this separates off a number of other 4' ys which appears between the two first-formed znlracta, Kr. (After individuals. Ultimately, a chain of sexual Malmgren.) zooids is thus formed. A given stock only produces zooids of one sex. In Myrianida there is a further development of this process, The conversion of the posterior end of the simple individual into a sexual region is dispensed with; but from a preanal budding segment a series of sexual buds are produced. The well-known Syllid, discovered during the voyage of the " Challenger," shows a modification of this form of budding. here, however, the buds are lateral, though produced from a budding b a zone, and they themselves produce other buds, so that a ramifying colony is created. Quite recently, another mode of budding has been described in Trypanosyllis gemmipara, where a crowd of some fifty buds arising symmetrically are produced at the tail end of the worm. In some Syllids, such as Pionosyllis gestans, the ova are attached to the body A of the parent in a regular line, and develop in situ; this process, which has been attributed to budding, is an " external gestation," and occurs in a number of species. As is very frequently the case with marine forms, as compared with their fresh-water and terrestrial allies, the Polychaeta differ from the Oligochaeta and Hirudinea in possessing a free living B ms, Larval muscle. o, Otocyst. pp, Parapodium. pr, Praeoral ciliated ring, or prototroch. larval form which is hatched at an early stage in development. This larva is termed the Trochosphere larva, and typically (as it is held) is an egg-shaped larva with two bands of cilia, one preoral and one postoral, with an apical nervous plate surmounted by a tuft of longer cilia, and with a simple bent alimentary canal, with lateral mouth and posterior anus, between which and the ectoderm is a spacious cavity (blastocoel) traversed by muscular strands and often containing a larval kidney. The segmentation is of the mesoblast to begin with, and appears later behind the mouth, the part anterior to this becoming the prostomium of the adult. The chief modifications of this form are seen in the Mitraria larva of Ammochares with only the preoral band, which is much folded and which has provisional and long setae; the atrochous larva, where the covering of cilia is uniform and not split into bands; and the polytrochous larva where there are several bands surrounding the body. There are also other modifications. Classification.—The older arrangement of the Polychaeta into Errantia or free living and Tubicola or tube-dwelling forms will hardly fit the much increased knowledge of the group. W. B. Benham's division into Phanerocephala in which the prostomium is plain, and Crytocephala in which the prostomium is hidden by the peristomium adopted by Sedgwick, can only be justified by the character used; for the Terebellids, though phanerocephalous, have many of the features of the Sabellids. It is perhaps safer to subdivide the Order into 6 Suborders (in the number of these following Benham, except in combining the Sabelliformia and Hermelliformia). Of these 6, the two first to be considered are very plainly separable and represent the extremes of Polychaete organization. (I) Nereidiformia.—" Errant " . Polychaetes with well-marked prostomium possessing tentacles and palps with evident and locomotor parapodia, supported (with few exceptions) by strong spines, the aciculi; muscular pharynx usually armed with jaws; septa and nephridia regularly metameric and similar throughout body; free living and predaceous. (2) Cryptocephala. —Tube-dwelling with body divided into thorax and abdomen marked by the setae, which are reversed in position in the neuropodium and notopodium respectively in the two regions. Parapodia hardly projecting; palps of prosomium forming branched gills; no pharynx or eversible buccal region; no septa in thorax, septa in abdomen regularly disposed. Nephridia in two series; large, anterior nephridia followed by small, short tubes in abdomen. The remaining groups are harder to define, with the exception of the (3) Capitelliformia, which are mud-living worms of an " oligochaetous " appearance, and with some affinities to that order. The peristomium has no setae, and the setae generally are hair-like or uncinate, of ten forming almost complete rings. The genital ducts are limited to one segment (the 8th in Capitella capitata), and there are genital setae on this and the next (After Montagu.) Arenicola marina, L. segment. In other forms genital ducts and nephridia coexist in the same segment. The nephridia are sometimes numerous in each segment. There is no blood system, and the coelomic corpuscles contain A, Anus. E, Eye. M, Mouth. ap. Apical organ. h, Head kidney." i, Intestine. haemoglobin. (4) Terebelliformia. These worms are in some respects like the Sabellids (Cryptocephala). The parapodia, as in the Capitellidae, are hardly developed. The buccal region is unarmed and not eversible. The prostomium has many long filaments which recall the gills of the Sabellids, &c. The nephridia are specialized into two series, as in the last-mentioned worms. (5) Spioniformia (including Chaetoplerus, Spio, &c.) and (6) Scoleciformia (Arenicola, Chloraema, Sternaspis) are the remaining groups. In both, the nephridia are all alike; there are no jaws; the prostomium rarely has processes. The body is often divisible into regions.
End of Article: POLYCHAETA
POLYCARP (c. 6g-c. 155)

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