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POMERANIA (German, Pommern)

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Originally appearing in Volume V22, Page 48 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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POMERANIA (German, Pommern), a territory of Germany and a maritime province of Prussia, bounded on the N. by the Baltic, on the W. by Mecklenburg, on the S. by Brandenburg, and on the E. by West Prussia. Its area is 11,63o sq. m., and the population in 1905 was 1,684,125, showing a density of 145 inhabitants to the square mile. The province is officially divided into the three districts of Stralsund, Stettin and KSslin, but more historical interest attaches to the names of Vorpommern and Hinterpommern, or Hither and Farther Pomerania, the former being applied to the territory to the west, and the latter to that to the east of the Oder. Pomerania is one of the flattest parts of Germany, although east of the Oder it is traversed by a range of low hills, and there are also a few isolated eminences to the west. Off the west coast, which is very irregular, lie the islands of Rugen, Usedom and Wollin; the coast of Farther Pomerania is smooth in outline and is bordered with dunes, or sandbanks. Besides the Oder and its affluents, the chief of which are the Peene, the tYcker and the Ihna, there are several smaller rivers flowing into the Baltic; a few of these are navigable for ships, but the greater number only carry rafts. Many of them end in small lakes, which are separated from the sea by narrow strips of land, through which the water escapes by one or more outlets. The interior of the province is also thickly sprinkled with lakes, the combined area of which is equal to about one-twentieth of the entire surface. The soil of Pomerania is for the most part thin and sandy, but patches of good land are found here and there. About 55% of the whole is under tillage, while 16% consists of meadow and pasture and 21 % is covered by forests. The principal crops are potatoes, rye and oats, but wheat and barley are grown in the more fertile districts; tobacco, flax, hops and beetroot are also cultivated. Agriculture is still carried on in a somewhat of the duchy of Lauenburg, finally succeeded in uniting the whole of Pomerania under her rule. For the history, see J. Bugenhagen, Pomerania, edited by O. Heinemann (Stettin, 1900) ; von Bohlen, Die Erwerbung Pommerns durch die Hohenzollern (Berlin, 1865) ; H. Berghaus, Landbuch des Herzogtums Pommern (Berlin, 1865–1876) ; the Codex Pomeraniae diplomaticus, edited by K. F. W. Hasselbach and J. G. L. Kosegarten (Greifswald, 1862) ; the Pommersches Urkundenbuch, edited by R. Klempin and others (Stettin, 1868-1896) ; W. von Sommer.. feld, Geschichte der Germanisierung des Herzogtums Pommern (Leipzig, 1896) ; F. W. Barthold, Geschichte von Rugen and Pommern (Hamburg, 1839-1845) ; K. Mass, Pommersche Geschichte (Stettin, 1899) ; M. Wehrmann, Geschichte von Pommern (Gotha, 1904-1906) ; and Decker, Pommern in Wort and B&1 (Stettin, 1904). See also the publications of the Gesellschaft fur pommersche Geschichte and Altertumskunde.
End of Article: POMERANIA (German, Pommern)
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