POMPEY , the
See also:form of Pompeius, the name of a
See also:Roman plebeian
See also:family . I . GNAEUS POMPEIUS (106–48 B.C.), the triumvir, the first of his family to assume the surname
See also:MAGNUS, was
See also:born on the 3dth of
See also:September in the same
See also:year as
See also:Cicero . When only seventeen he fought together with his
See also:father in the Social War . ' Their
See also:history and
See also:political character is obscure; they were at any
See also:rate connected with the knights (see AERARIUM) . He took the side of Sulla against
See also:Marius and Cinna, but for a
See also:time, in consequence of the success of the Marians, he kept in the background . On the return of Sulla from the Mithradatic War Pompey joined him with an army of three legions, which he had raised in
See also:Picenum . Thus early in
See also:life he connected himself with the cause of the aristocracy, and a decisive victory which he won in 83 over the Marian armies gained for him from Sulla the title of Imperator . He followed up his successes in Italy. by defeating the Marians in
See also:Sicily and Africa, and on his return to Rome in 81, though he was still merely an eques and not legally qualified to celebrate a
See also:triumph, he was allowed by general consent to enjoy this distinction, while Sulla greeted him with the surname of Magnus, a title he always retained and handed down to his sons . Latterly, his relations with Sulla were somewhat strained, but after his
See also:death he resisted the attempt of the
See also:consul M . Aemilius
See also:Lepidus to repeal the constitution . In conjunction with A .
See also:Catulus, the other consul, he defeated Lepidus when he tried to
See also:march upon Rome, and drove him out of Italy (77) . With some fears and misgivings the
See also:senate permitted him to retain the command of his victorious army, and decided on sending him to Spain, where the Marian party, under
See also:Sertorius, was still formidable.' Pompey was fighting in Spain from 76 to 71, and though at first he met with serious reverses he was ultimately successful . After Sertorius had fallen a victim to assassination, Pompey easily defeated his successor Perperna and put an end to the war . In 71 he won fresh
See also:glory by finally crushing the slave insurrection of
See also:Spartacus, That same year, amid
See also:great popular
See also:enthusiasm, but without the hearty concurrence of the senate, whom he had alarmed by talking of restoring the dreaded power of the tribunes, he was elected with M .
See also:Licinius Crassus to the consulship, and entered Rome in triumph (
See also:December 31) for his
See also:Spanish victories . He was legally ineligible for the consulship, having held none of the
See also:lower offices of state and being under age . The following year saw the
See also:work of Sulla undone; the tribunate was restored, and the administration of
See also:justice was no longer
See also:left exclusively to the senate, but was to be shared by it with the wealthier portion of the
See also:middle class, the equites (q.v.) and the tribuni aerarii.' The
See also:change was really necessary, as the provincials could never get justice from a
See also:court composed of senators, and it was carried into effect by Pompey with Caesar's aid . Pompey
See also:rose still higher in popularity, and on the motion of the tribune Aulus
See also:Gabinius in 67 he was entrusted with an extraordinary command over the greater
See also:part of the
See also:empire, specially for the extermination of piracy in the Mediterranean, by which the corn supplies of Rome were seriously endangered, while the high prices of provisions caused great
See also:distress . He was completely successful; the price of corn fell immediately on his
See also:appointment, and in
See also:forty days the Mediterranean was cleared of the pirates . Next year, on the proposal of the tribune Manilius, his
See also:powers were still further extended, the care of all the provinces in the East being put under his
See also:control for three years together with the conduct of the war against
See also:Mithradates VI., who had recovered from the defeats he had sustained from
See also:Lucullus and regained his dominions . Both Caesar and Cicero supported the tribune's proposal, which was easily carried in spite of the interested opposition of the senate and the aristocracy, several of whom held provinces which would now be practically under Pompey's command . The result of Pompey's operations was eminently satisfactory .
See also:wild tribes of the
See also:Caucasus were cowed by the Roman arms, and Mithradates himself fled across the Black
See also:Sea to Panticapaeum (
See also:modern Kertch) . In the years 64 and 63
See also:Syria and
See also:Palestine were annexed to Rome's empire . After the capture of Jerusalem Pompey is said to have entered the
See also:Temple, and even the
See also:Holy of Holies .
See also:Asia and the East generally were left under the subjection of
See also:kings who were mere vassals of Rome . Several cities had been founded which became centres of Greek life and
See also:civilization . Pompey, now in his forty-fifth year, returned to Italy in 6r to celebrate the most magnificent triumph which Rome had ever G . Boissier, Cicero and His Friends (Eng. trans., A . D .
See also:Jones, 1897) ; witnessed, as the conqueror of Spain, Africa, and Asia (see A . Holm, Hist. of
See also:Greece, Eng. trans., vol. iv.) . This triumph marked the turning-point of his career . As a soldier everything had gone well with him; as a politician he was a failure .
He found a great change in publicopinion, and the
See also:people indifferent to his achievements abroad . The optimates resented the extra-ordinary powers that had been conferred upon him; Lucullus and Crassus considered that they had been robbed by him of the
See also:honour of concluding the war against Mithradates . The senate refused to ratify the. arrangements he made in Asia or to provide
See also:money and lands for distribution amongst his veterans . In these circumstances he drew closer to Caesar on his return from Spain, and became reconciled to Crassus . The result was the so-called first triumvirate (see RoME: History) . The
See also:remainder of his life is inextricably interwoven with that of Caesar . He was married to Caesar's daughter Julia, and as yet the relations between the two had been friendly . On more than one occasion Caesar had supported Pompey's policy, which of
See also:late had been in a decidedly democratic direction . Pompey was now in fact ruler of the greater part of the empire, while Caesar had only the two provinces of Gaul . The control of the capital, the supreme command of the army in Italy and ; of the Mediterranean
See also:fleet, the governorship of the two Spains, the superintendence of the corn supplies, which were mainly
See also:drawn from Sicily and Africa, and on which the vast population of Rome was wholly dependent, were entirely in the hands of Pompey, who was gradually losing the confidence of all political parties in Rome . The senate and the aristocracy disliked and distrusted him, but they
See also:felt that, should things come to the worst, they might still find in him a
See also:champion of their cause . Hence the joint
See also:rule of Pompey and Caesar was not unwillingly accepted, and anything like a rupture between the two was greatly dreaded as the sure beginning of anarchy throughout the Roman
See also:world .
With the deaths of Pompey's wife Julia (S4) and of Crassus (53) the relations between him and Caesar became strained, and soon afterwards he drew closer to what we may
See also:call the old conservative party in the senate and aristocracy . The end was now near, and Pompey blundered into a false political position and an open
See also:quarrel with Caesar . In 5o the senate by a very large majority revoked the extraordinary powers conceded to Pompey and Caesar in Spain and Gaul respectively, and called upon them to disband their armies . Pompey's refusal to submit gave Caesar a
See also:good pretext for declaring war and marching at the
See also:head of his army into Italy . At the beginning of the contest the advantages were decidedly on the side of Pompey, but the
See also:superior political tact of his
See also:rival, combined with extraordinary promptitude and decision in following up his blows, soon turned the scale against him . Pompey's cause, with that of the senate and aristocracy, was finally ruined by his defeat in 48 in the neighbourhood of the Thessalian city Pharsalus . That same year he fled with the hope of finding a safe
See also:refuge in
See also:Egypt, but was treacherously murdered by one of his old centurions as he was landing . He was five times married, and three of his
See also:children survived him—Gnaeus, Sextus, and a daughter Pompeia . Pompey, though he had some great and good qualities, hardly deserved his surname of " the Great." He was certainly a very good soldier, and is said to have excelled in all athletic exercises, but he fell
See also:short of being a first-rate general . He won great successes in Spain and more espec;ally in the East, but for these he was no doubt partly indebted to what others had already done . Of the gifts which make a good statesman he had really none . As plainly appeared in the last years of his life, he was too weak and irresolute to choose a side and stand by it .
But to his
See also:credit be it said that in a corrupt time he never used his opportunities for
See also:plunder and extortion, and his domestic life was pure and
See also:simple . Modern: Histories of Rome in general (see ROME:
See also:Ancient History, ad fin.);
See also:works quoted under CAESAR and CICERO . Also J . L .
See also:Davidson's Cicero (1894); Warde
See also:Julius Caesar (1892); C . W .
See also:Oman, Seven Roman Statesmen of the Later Republic (1902); notes in Tyrrell and
See also:Correspondence of Cicero (see
See also:index in vii . 8o) . 2 . GNAEUS POMPEIUS, surnamed
See also:Strabo (squint-eyed), Roman statesman, father of the triumvir . He was successively quaestor in
See also:Sardinia (103 B.c.), praetor (94), propraetor in Sicily (93) and consul (89) . He fought with success in the Social War, and was awarded a triumph for his services .
Probably towards the end of the same year he brought forward the
See also:law (lex Pompeia de Gallia Transpadana), which conferred upon the inhabitants of that region the privileges granted to the Latin colonies . During the
See also:civil war between Marius and Sulla he seems to have shown no
See also:desire to attach himself definitely to either side . He certainly set out for Rome from the south of Italy (where he remained as proconsul) at the bidding of the aristocratic party, when the city was threatened by Marius and Cinna, but he displayed little energy, and the engagement which he fought before the
See also:gate, although hotly contested, was indecisive . Soon afterwards he was killed by
See also:lightning (87) . Although he possessed great military talents, Pompeius was the best-hated general of his time owing to his cruelty, avarice and perfidy . His
See also:body was dragged from the bier, while being conveyed to the funeral
See also:pile, and treated with the greatest indignity . _ See Plutarch, Pompey, 1;
See also:Bell. civ. i . 5o, 52, 66-68, 8o;, Veil . Pat. ii . 21;
See also:Livy, Epit . 74–79; Florus iii . 18 .
3 . GNAEUS POMPEIUS MAGNUS (c . 75-45 B.C.), theelder son of the triumvir . In 48 B.C. during the civil war he commanded his father's fleet in the Adriatic . After the
See also:battle of Pharsalus he set out for Africa with the remainder of the Pompeian party, but,
See also:meeting with little success, crossed over to Spain . Having been joined by his
See also:brother Sextus, he collected a considerable army, the numbers of which were increased by the Pompeians who fled from Africa after the battle of
See also:Thapsus (46) . Caesar, who regarded him as a formidable opponent, set out against him in
See also:person . A battle took place at Munda on the 17th of March 45, in which ' the
See also:brothers were defeated . Gnaeus managed to make his
See also:escape after the engagement, but was soon (
See also:April 12) captured and put to death . He was generally unpopular owing to his cruelty and violent
See also:temper . See Pseudo-
See also:Oppius, Bellum hispaniense, 1-39;
See also:Lucan, Pharsalia, ix . 12o; Dio Cassius xliii .
28–40 . 4 . SEXTUS POMPEIUS MAGNUS (75–35 B.C.), the younger son of the triumvir . After his father's death he continued the struggle against the new rulers of the Roman Empire . FromCyprus, where he had taken refuge, he made his way to Africa, and after the defeat of the Pompeians at Thapsus (46) crossed over to Spain . After Caesar's victory at the battle of Munda (45), in which he took no actual part, he abandoned Corduba (Cordova), though for a time he held his ground in the south, and defeated Asinius Pollio, the
See also:governor of the province . In 43, the year of the triumvirate of Octavius, Antony, and Lepidus, he was proscribed along with the murderers of Caesar, and, not daring to show himself in Italy, he put himself at the head of a fleet manned chiefly by slaves or proscribed persons, with which he made himself
See also:master of Sicily, and from thence ravaged the coasts of Italy . Rome was threatened with a
See also:famine, as the corn supplies from Egypt and Africa were cut off by his
See also:ships, and it was thought prudent to negotiate a peace with him at
See also:Misenum (39), which was to leave him in possession of Sicily, Sardinia and
See also:Achaea, provided he would allow Italy to be freely supplied with corn . But the arrangement could not be carried into effect, as Sextus renewed the war and gained some considerable successes at sea . However, in 36 his fleet was defeated and destroyed by Agrippa at Naulochus off the
See also:coast of Sicily . After his defeat he fled to Mytilene, and from there to Asia Minor . In the attempt to make his way to Armenia he was taken prisoner by Antony's troops, and put to death at
See also:Miletus .
Like his father, he was a brave soldier, but aman of little culture . See Dio Cassius, xlvi–xlix.; Appian, Bell. civ. iv . 84-117, V . 2-143; Veil . Pat. ii . 73–87; Plutarch, Antony; Livy, Epit . 123, 128, 129, 131; Cicero, Philippica, xiii., and many references in Letters to Atticus .
MARQUIS DE JEAN JACQUES LEFRANC POMPIGNAN (1709 178...
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