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PONIATOWSKI

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Originally appearing in Volume V22, Page 61 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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PONIATOWSKI, the name of a Polish princely family of tion of the constitution of the 3rd of May 1791 he was Italian origin, tracing descent from Giuseppe Torelli, who appointed commander-in-chief, with instructions to guard the married about 165o an heiress of the Lithuanian family of banks of the Dniester and Dnieper. On the outbreak of the Poniator, whose name he assumed. war with Russia, Prince Joseph, aided by Kosciuszko, displayed The first of the Poniatowskis to distinguish himself was great ability. Obliged constantly to retreat, but disputing STANISLAUS PONIATOWSKI (1677-1762), who only belonged to every point of. vantage, he turned on the pursuer whenever the family by adoption, being the reputed son of Prince Sapieha he pressed too closely, and won several notable victories. At and a Jewess. He was born at Dereczyn in Lithuania, and was Polonna the Russians were repulsed with the loss of 3000 men; adopted by Sapieha's intendant, Poniatowski. With his father at Dubienka the line of the Bug was defended for five days he attached himself to the party of Stanislaus Leszczynski, and against fourfold odds; at Zielence the Poles won a still more became major-general in the army of Charles XII. of Sweden. signal victory. Finally the Polish arms converged upon Warsaw, After the defeat of Pultowa he conveyed Charles XII. across and were preparing for a general engagement when a courier the Dnieper, and remained with him at Bender. From there from the capital informed the generals that the king had acceded he was sent to Constantinople, where he extracted from the to the confederation of Targowica (see POLAND: History) and sultan Achmet III. a promise to march to Moscow. When the had at the same time guaranteed the adhesion of the army. grand vizier, Baltagi Mehemet, permitted the tsar Peter I. to All hostilities were therefore to be suspended. After an indigretreat unharmed from the banks of the Pruth, Poniatowski nant but fruitless protest, Poniatowski and most of the other exposed his treason. He rejoined Leszczynski in the duchy generals threw up their commissions and emigrated. During of Zweibrucken, Bavaria, of which he became governor. the Kosciuszko rising he again fought gallantly for his country After the death of Charles XII. in 1718 he visited Sweden; under his former subordinate, and after the fall'of the republic and was subsequently reconciled with Leszczynski's rival on resided as a private citizen at Warsaw for the next ten years. the throne of Poland, Augustus II., who made him grand After Jena and the evacuation of the Polish provinces by treasurer of Lithuania in 1724. On the death of Augustus.H. Prussia, Poniatowski was offered the command of the National he tried to secure the reinstatement of Leszczynski, who then Guard; he set about reorganizing the Polish army, and on the resumed his claims to the Polish crown.' He was taken prisoner creation of the grand duchy of Warsaw was nominated war at Danzig by the Russians, and presently gave his allegiance minister. During the war of 1809, when an Austrian army to Augustus III., by whom he was made governor of Cracow. corps under the archduke Ferdinand invaded the grand duchy, He died at Ryki on the 3rd of August 1762. Poniatowski encountered them at the bloody battle of Radzyn, His second son Stanislaus Augustus became king of Poland and though compelled to abandon Warsaw ultimately forced (see STANISLAUS II.). Of the other sons, Casimir (1721—1780) the enemy to evacuate the grand duchy, and captured Cracow. was his brother's chancellor; Andrew (1735—1773) entered the In Napoleon's campaign against Russia in 1812 Poniatowski Austrian service, rising to the rank of feldzeugmeister; and commanded the fifth army corps; and after the disastrous Michael (1736—1794) became archbishop of Gnesen and primate retreat of the grand army, when many of the Poles began to waver of Poland. Joseph Anthony Poniatowski (q.v.), son of Andrew, in their allegiance to Napoleon, Poniatowski remained faithful became one of Napoleon's marshals. and formed a new Polish army of 13,000 men with which he
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