PORTUS , an
See also:harbour of
See also:Latium, Italy, on the right
See also:bank of the
See also:Tiber, at its mouth . For its origin see OsT1A .
See also:Claudius constructed the first harbour here, 21 M.
See also:north of
See also:Ostia, enclosing an
See also:area of 170 acres, with two long curving moles projecting into the
See also:sea, and an artificial
See also:island, bearing a
See also:house, in the centre of the space between them; the harbour thus opened directly to the sea on the north-west and communicated with the Tiber by a channel on the south-east . The
See also:object was to obtain
See also:protection from the prevalent south-west
See also:wind, to which the
See also:river mouth was exposed . Though Claudius, in the inscription which he caused to be erected in A.D . 46, boasted that he had freed the city of Rome from the danger of inundation, his
See also:work was only partially successful .
See also:Nero gave the harbour the name of Portus Augusti . It was probably Claudius who constructed hither the
See also:direct road from Rome, the Via Portuensis (15 m.) which ran over the hills as far as the
See also:Ponte Galera, and then straight across the plain . An older road, the Via Campana, ran along the
See also:foot of the hills, following the right bank of the Tiber, and passing the
See also:grove of the Arval
See also:Brothers at the
See also:sixth mile, to the Campus salinarum romanarum, the saltmarsh on the right bank—from which indeed it derived its name (see Notizie degli Scavi, 1888, p . 228) . The site can still be fairly clearly traced in the low ground to the east of Fiumicino, and the lighthouse is represented in bas-reliefs . The harbour is generally supposed to have been protected by two moles with a
See also:breakwater in front, on which stood the lighthouse, with an entrance on each side of it .
Trial soundings made in 1907 showed that the course of the right-
See also:hand mole is represented by a low sandhill, while the central breakwater was only some 190 yds. long, and probably divided from each of the two moles by a channel some 125 yds. wide . The existence of two entrances is, indeed, in accordance with the evidence of coins and
See also:literary tradition, though the position of that on the
See also:left is not certain, and it may have been closed in later times . The whole course of the left-hand mole has not yet been traced, but it seems to have protected not only the south-west but a considerable portion of the north-west side of the harbour . In A.D . 103 Trajan constructed another harbour farther inland—a hexagonal
See also:basin enclosing an area of 97 acres, and communicating by canals with the harbour of Claudius, with the Tiber direct, and with the sea, the last now forming the navigable
See also:arm of the
See also:Tibet (reopened for
See also:traffic by
See also:Gregory XIII. and again by Paul V.), and bearing the name Fossa trajana, though its origin is undoubtedly due to Claudius . The basin itself is still preserved, and is now a reedy lagoon . It was surrounded by extensive warehouses, remains of which may still be seen: the fineness of the
See also:brickwork of which they are built is remarkable . Farther to the
See also:cast is a circular
See also:building in
See also:brick with niches; it is called the
See also:temple of Portumnus . To the east again is the so-called Arco di Nostra Donna, a gateway (possibly originally built by Trajan) in the fortifications which surround the
See also:port and are attributed to the
See also:time of
See also:Constantine . Many other remains of buildings exist; they were more easily traceable in the 16th century when Pirro Ligorio and Antonio Labacco made plans of the harbour . Considerable excavations were carried on in 1868, but unfortunately with the idea of recovering
See also:works of
See also:art and antiquities; and the plan and description given by R . Lanciani (Annali del instituto, 1868, 144 sqq.) were made under unfavourable circumstances .
By means of these works Portus captured the
See also:share of the harbour traffic of Rome, and though the importance of Ostia did not at once decrease we find Portus already an episcopal see in Constantine's time not very 169 long (if at all) after Ostia, and as the only harbour in the time of the
See also:wars . Its
See also:dates from the partial silting up of the right arm of the Tiber in the
See also:middle ages, which restored to Ostia what little traffic was left . To the west of the harbour is the
See also:cathedral of S . Rufina (loth century, but modernized except for the campanile) and the episcopal palace, fortified in the middle ages, and containing a number of ancient inscriptions from the site . On the island (Isola Sacra) just opposite is the
See also:church of S . Ippolito, built on the site of a
See also:Roman building, with a picturesque
See also:medieval campanile (13th century ?); 2 M. to the west is the modern
See also:village of Fiumicino at the mouth of the right arm of the Tiber, which is 21 M. west-south-west by
See also:rail from Rome . It is a frazione, or portion of the commune of Rome . Three
See also:miles to the north is the pumping station by which the
See also:lowland (formerly called Stagno di Maccarese, now reclaimed and traversed by many drainage canals) between here and Maccarese is kept drained (Bonifica di Maccarese) (see TIBER) . See H .
See also:Dessau in Corp. inscr. latin, xiv . I sqq . (Berlin, 1887) ; J .
Carcopino in Notizie degli Scavi (1907), p . 734 . (T . As.) PORT-VENDRES, a seaport of south-westernFrance, in the department of Pyrenees-Orientales, in an inlet of the Mediterranean Sea, 191 m . S.S.E. of
See also:Perpignan by rail . Pop . (1906), 2525 . Port-Vendres, the ancient Portus Veneris, is
See also:fourth in importance of the French Mediterranean ports, and forms a
See also:good harbour of
See also:refuge . Its
See also:trade, which is with Spain,
See also:Greece and Algeria, is in
See also:cork, carobs,
See also:grain and
See also:wine, &c .
PORTUNUS, or PORTUMNUS
PORUS (4th century B.C.)
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