See also:Warthe, 150 M . E. from Berlin and 103 M. from
See also:Breslau . Pop . (1885), 68,315; (1895), 73,239; (1905), 136,808, of whom nearly one-
See also:half are Germans and about one-tenth Jews . Posen lies at the centre of a network of
See also:railways connecting it with Berlin, Breslau, Thorn,
See also:Kreuzburg, and Schneidemifhl . The inner
See also:line of fortifications was removed in 1902 and the city has been completely modernized . The
See also:part of Posen, on the
See also:bank of the Warthe, comprises the old
See also:town (Alstadt) and the
See also:modern quarter created by the Prussians after 1793 . On the right bank lie Wallischei (a
See also:district inhabited by Poles) and some other suburbs . Posen has fifteen
See also:Roman Catholic and three Evangelical churches and several synagogues . The
See also:cathedral contains many interesting
See also:objects of
See also:art, but, with the exception of the
See also:Gothic Marienkirche of the 15th century, none of the churches is notable . The old town-
See also:hall is a
See also:Slavonic adaptation of Romanesque forms . The royal
See also:castle, begun in 1905 and completed in 1910 at a cost of £250,000, is a pretentious
See also:building in what is officially called Romanesque
See also:style .
It was intended as an effort to conciliate the Poles, and was opened by theemperor
See also:William II., with imposing ceremonies, on the loth of
See also:August 1910 . Posen possesses an " Emperor William " library with 200,000 volumes, and the Raczynski library with 50,000 . Other principal buildings are the two theatres, the Emperor
See also:Frederick museum, founded in 1894, the
See also:Polish museum and the various public offices .
See also:Industries include the manufacture of agricultural machinery,
See also:spirits, furniture and
See also:sugar, also milling and
See also:brewing . There is an active
See also:trade, both by
See also:rail and
See also:river, in corn,
See also:wood, wool and potatoes . Posen is the headquarters of the V. army
See also:corps, and has a garrison of 6000 men . Posen, one of the
See also:oldest towns in Poland and the residence of some of the early Polish princes, including Boleslaus I., became the seat of a Christian bishopric about the
See also:middle of the loth century . The
See also:original settlement was on the right bank of the Warthe, but the new town, established on the opposite bank by German settlers about 1250, soon became the more important part of the
See also:double city . Posen became a
See also:depot for the trade between Germany and western
See also:Europe on the one
See also:hand and Poland and Russia on the other . Many
See also:foreign merchants made the city their residence, and these included a colony of Scots, who exported produce to
See also:Edinburgh . The city attained the
See also:climax of its prosperity in the 16th century, when its population, according to one estimate, reached 8o,000 . The intolerance shown to the Protestants, the troubles of the
See also:Thirty Years' War, the plague and other causes, soon conspired to
See also:change this state of affairs, and in the 18th century the population sank to 12,000 .
See also:life was infused into the city after its annexation by Prussia at the second
See also:partition of Poland in 1793, and since this date its growth has been rapid . See Lukaszewicz, Historisch-statistisches Bild der Stadt Posen 968–1793 (Ger. trans., Posen, 1881); Ohlenschlager, Kurzgefasste Geschichte and Beschreibung der Stadt Posen (Posen, 1886) ; Warschauer, Stadtbuch von Posen (Posen, 1892) ; and Fiihrer durch Posen (Posen, 1895) .
POSIDIPPUS (3rd cent. B.C.)
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