See also:rank, in the conventional
See also:system of arrangement under which the more eminent and dignified orders of the community are classified on occasions of public ceremony and in the intercourse of private
See also:life . In the
See also:Kingdom there is no
See also:complete and comprehensive
See also:code whereby the
See also:scheme of social gradation has been defined and settled, once and for all, on a sure and lasting foundation . The principles and rules at
See also:present controlling it have been formulated at different periods and have been derived from various
See also:sources . The
See also:Crown is the fountain of
See also:honour, and it is its undoubted
See also:prerogative to confer on any of its subjects, in any
See also:part of its dominions, such titles and distinctions and such rank and place as to it may seem meet and convenient . Its discretion in this respect is altogether unbounded at
See also:law, and is limited in those cases only wherein it has been submitted to restraintby
See also:act of parliament . In the old
See also:time all questions of precedence came in the ordinary course of things within the jurisdiction of the
See also:court of chivalry, in which the
See also:lord high
See also:constable and
See also:earl marshal presided as
See also:judges, and of which the
See also:kings of arms, heralds and pursuivants were the assessors and executive
See also:officers . When, however, points of unusual moment and magnitude •happened to be brought into controversy, they were occasionally considered and decided by the
See also:sovereign in
See also:person, or by a
See also:special commission, or by the privy council, or even by the parliament itself . But it was not until towards the
See also:middle of the 16th century that precedence was made the subject of any legislation in the proper meaning of the
See also:term.' . In 1539 an act " for the placing of the Lords in Parliament " (31
See also:Hen . VIII. c . 10) was passed at the instance of the
See also:king, and by it the relative rank of the members of the royal
See also:family, of the
See also:great officers of state and the
See also:household, and of the hierarchy and the
See also:peerage was definitely and definitively ascertained .
In 1563 an act " for declaring the authority of the Lord Keeper of the GreatSeal and the Lord Chancellor to be the same " (5 Eliz. c . 18) also declared their precedence to be the same . Questions concerning the precedence of peers are mentioned in the Lords
See also:Journals 4 & 5 Ph. and M. and 39 Eliz., but in the reign of
See also:James I. such questions were often referred to the commissioners for executing the
See also:office of earl marshal . In the reign of
See also:Charles I. the
See also:House of Lords considered several questions of precedency and objected in the earl of
See also:Banbury's case to warrants overruling the
See also:statute of 31 Hen . VIII . In 1689 an act " for enabling Lords Commissioners of the Great Seal to execute the office of Lord Chancellor or Lord Keeper " (1 Will. and Mary c . 21) gave to the commissioners not being peers of the
See also:realm place next to the
See also:speaker of the House of
See also:Commons and to the speaker place next to the peers of the realm . In 1707 the Act of Union with Scotland (6 Anne c . 11) provided that all peers of Scotland should be peers of Great Britain'- and should have rank immediately after the peers of the like degrees in England at the time of the union and before all peers of Great Britain of the like degrees created after the union . In 1800 the Act of Union with
See also:Ireland (39 & 40 Geo . III. c . 67) provided that the lords spiritual of Ireland should have rank immediately after the lords spiritual of the same degree in Great Britain, and that the lords temporal of Ireland should have rank immediately after the lords temporal of the same degree in Great Britain at the time of the union, and further that " peerages of Ireland created after the union should have precedence with peerages of the United Kingdom created after the union according to the
See also:dates of their creation." At different times too during the current century several statutes have been passed for the reform and extension of the judicial organization which have very materially affected the precedence of the judges, more especially the Judicature Act of 1873 (36 & 37 Vict .
C . 66), under which the lords justices of
See also:appeal and the justices of the High Court now receive their appointments . But the statute of
See also:Henry VIII . " for the placing of the Lords " still remains the only legislative measure in which it has been attempted to
See also:deal directly and systematically with any large and important section of the scale of general precedence; and the law, so far as it relates to the ranking of the sovereign's immediate kindred whether lineal or
See also:collateral, the
See also:principal ministers of the Crown and court, and both the spiritual and temporal members of the House of Lords, is to all
See also:practical intents and purposes what it was made by that statute nearly 350 years ago . Where no act of parliament applies precedence is determined either by the will and pleasure of the sovereign or by what is accepted as "
See also:ancient usage and established ' Ample materials for the satisfaction of the curiosity of those who are desirous of investigating the
See also:history of precedence under its wider and more remote aspects will be found in such writers as
See also:Selden or
See also:Mackenzie, together with the authorities quoted or referred to by them : Selden, Titles of Honor, pt. ii. p . 940 seq . (
See also:London, 1672) ; Mackenzie, Observations upon The
See also:Laws and Customs of Nations as to Precedency (
See also:Edinburgh, 168o; and also reprinted in Guillim, Display of
See also:Heraldry, 6th ed., London, 1724) .
PRECENTOR (Late Lat. praecentor, from praecipere, t...
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