See also:term used in three senses: (1)
See also:God's unchangeable decision from eternity of all that is to be; (2) God's destination of men to
See also:everlasting happiness or misery; (3) God's
See also:appointment unto
See also:life or " election " (the appointment unto
See also:death being called " reprobation," and the term " foreordination " being preferred to "
See also:predestination " in regard to it) . In the first sense the conception is similar to that of
See also:fate; this assumes a moral character as
See also:nemesis, or the inevitable
See also:penalty of transgression . The question of the relation of divine and human will has been the subject of two controversies in the Christian
See also:church, the Augustinian-Pelagian and the Calvinistic-Arminian . Pelagius maintained the
See also:free-will of man, and held that man's conduct, character, destiny are in his own
See also:hand .
See also:Grace, by enlightening, forgiving sin and strengthening his moral
See also:helps man to fulfil this purpose . While grace is meant for all, men make them-selves worthy of it by striving after virtue . This
See also:doctrine as minimizing grace was repugnant to Augustine . He regarded mankind as sinful, guilty, ruined, incapable of any
See also:good . God alone can save . His grace is effectual and irresistible . As what God has done He has eternally willed to do, grace involves pre-destination . God has from eternity chosen those whom He
See also:wills to save (" election "), and consequently He has also passed over those whom He leaves to perish (" praeterition ") .
As all deserve damnation, there is no injustice in leaving them to their deserts . The " reprobation " of the wicked is not the cause of their sin; God's foreknowledge does not make the sin necessary; how reprobation and foreknowledge are related is not madeplain . The doctrine of Augustine was revived in the 9th century by Gottschalk, who taught that God's passing over the lost meant their predestination to punishment .
See also:Hincmar of Reims persecuted him for not distinguishing the two positions . This dispute would have little
See also:interest now, had not Hincmar appealed to
See also:John Scotus Erigena, who attempted to solve the theological problem by philosophical conceptions . He denied that foreknowledge or predestination as temporal relations could be properly predicated of God as eternal; he described sin and its consequences as negations, neither caused by nor known to God; he maintained that as evil is only a stage in the development of good, there will ultimately be a universal return to God . Thus the doctrine of reprobation was emptied of meaning . This defence of orthodoxy was condemned as heretical . The controversy was kept up during the scholastic
See also:period .
See also:Thomas Aquinas followed Augustine .
See also:Duns Scotus leaned toward Semi-Pelagianism, which rejected the doctrine of predestination, and maintained a co-operation of freedom and grace . While Aquinas affirmed the positions of Augustine, he deduced them from his Aristotelian conception of God as " first mover, itself unmoved." His
See also:original contribution to the subject was his theory of divine concurrence .
He distinguishes secondary causes as natural and necessary, and as voluntary and contingent; though both are set inmotion by God, yet as the natural remain natural, so do the voluntary remain voluntary . But this is clearly only a verbal solution . At the Reformation the Augustinian position was accepted by both
See also:Luther and
See also:Calvin .
See also:Melanchthon modified his earlier view in the direction of synergism, the theory of a co-operation of divine grace and human freedom . The later Lutheran doctrine is " that man, unable as he is to will any good thing, can yet use the means of grace, and that these means of grace, carrying in themselves a divine power, produce a saving effect on all who do not voluntarily oppose their influence .
See also:Baptism, e.g. confers grace, which if not resisted is saving . And God, foreseeing who will and who will not, resist the grace offered, predestinates to life all who are foreseen as believers." Calvin's view is the same as Augustine's . He held the sublapsarian view that the fall was decreed, but not the supralapsarian view that it " was decreed as a means towards carrying out a previous decree to save some and leave others to perish." The latter view was held by Beza and other Calvinists, and, it is said. repelled Arminius from Calvinism, and led him to formulate the doctrine that as repentance and faith are the divinely decreed conditions of eternal life, God has determined to give that life to all whom He foresees as fulfilling these conditions . According to Calvinism God's election unto salvation is absolute, determined by His own inscrutable will; according to Arminianism it is conditional, dependent on man's use of grace . The Synod of
See also:Dort (1618-1619) which affirmed the sublapsarian withaut excluding the supralapsarian
See also:form of Calvin-ism, condemned the views of Arminius and his followers, who were known as
See also:Remonstrants from the remonstrance " which in four articles repudiates supralapsarianism and infralapsarianism (which regarded the Fall as foreseen, but not decreed), and the doctrines of irresistibility of grace, and of the impossibility of the elect finally falling away from it, and boldly asserts the universality of grace." In the Church of Rome the
See also:Dominicans favoured Augustinianism, the
See also:Jesuits Semi-Pelagianism; the
See also:work of
See also:Molina on the agreement of free-will with the gifts of grace provoked a controversy, which the
See also:pope silenced without deciding; but which broke out again a generation later when
See also:Jansen tried to revive the decaying Augustinianism . The church of England has passed through several disputes regarding the question whether the
See also:Thirty-Nine Articles are Calvinistic or not; while there is some
See also:ambiguity in the language, it seems to favour Calvinism . At the Evangelical Revival the old questions came up, as
See also:Wesley favoured Arminianism and
See also:Whitefield Calvinism .
InScotland Calvinism was repudiated by
See also:James Morison, the founder of the Evangelical Union, who declared the three universalities, God's love for all, Christ's death for all, the
See also:Holy Spirit's working for all . While retained in the creeds of several denominations, in the public teaching of the churches the doctrine of predestination has lost its place and power . While the doctrine of election magnified God's grace, and so encouraged humility in man, it minimized man's freedom, and so produced either an over-confidence in those who believed themselves elect, or despair in those who could not reach the assurance . Now it is recognized that God's
See also:sovereignty must be conceived as consistent with man's liberty . While God fulfils His all-embracing purpose, that fulfilment leaves
See also:room for the exercise of individual freedom; the freedom God has bestowed on man He can so restrain and
See also:direct as to overrule even its abuse for His own gracious ends . That God desires that all should be saved, and that the salvation of each depends on his own choice—these are the general convictions of
See also:theology . The problem now is the reconciliation of human freedom with divine foreknowledge . Martineau accepts Dugald
See also:Stewart's solution . " There is no absurdity in supposing that the deity may, for wise purposes, have chosen to open a source of contingency in the voluntary actions of his creatures, to which no prescience can possibly extend." Others hold the problem to be insoluble, and not needing to be solved . (A . E .
PREDICABLES (Lat. praedicabilis, that which may be ...
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