PRESTON , a municipal,
See also:county, and
See also:borough and
See also:port, of
See also:Lancashire, England, on the
See also:river Ribble, 209 M . N.W. by N. from
See also:London by the London &
See also:North-Western railway, served also by the Lancashire &
See also:Yorkshire railway . Pop . (1891), 107,573; (1901), 112,989; at the beginning of the 19th century it was about 17,000 . The nucleus of its site consists of a
See also:ridge rising sharply from the north
See also:bank of the river, while the surrounding
See also:country, especially to the west about the estuary, is
See also:flat . Among the numerous
See also:parish churches that of St
See also:John, built in Decorated
See also:style in 1855, occupies a site which has carried a
See also:church from early times . Among several
See also:Roman Catholic churches, that of St
See also:Walpurgis (18J4) is a handsome
See also:building of Early Decorated character . Of public buildings the most noteworthy is the large
See also:hall, with lofty tower and
See also:spire, in Early
See also:English style, built in 1867 from designs by
See also:Scott . The
See also:free public library and museum were established in 1879 by the trustees of E . R .
See also:Harris, a prominent
See also:citizen . A new Preston, otherwise Prestune, was near the minor Roman station at Walton-le-Dale and the
See also:great Roman road
See also:running from
See also:Warrington passed through it .
It is mentioned in Domes-
See also:Book as one of
See also:Tostig's possessions which had fallen to Roger of Poictou, and on his defection it was forfeited to the
See also:Crown ?
See also:Henry II. about the
See also:year 1179 granted the burgesses a
See also:charter by which he confirmed to them the privileges he had granted to Newcastle-under-Lyme, the chief of which were a free borough and a gild
See also:merchant . This is the first of fourteen royal charters which have been granted to Preston, the chief of which are as follows: John in 1199 confirmed to Preston all the rights granted by Henry II.'s charter and also " their
See also:fair of eight days " from the
See also:Assumption (Aug . 15) and a three days' fair from the
See also:eve of
See also:Simon and
See also:Jude (Oct . 28) . Henry III. in 1217 confirmed the summer fair, but for five days only, and granted a weekly market on Wednesday .
See also:Edward III . (1328),
See also:Richard II . (1379), Henry IV . (1401), Henry V . (1414), Henry VI . (1425) and
See also:Philip and Mary (1557) confirmed the previous charters .
The weekly market, though granted for Wednesday, was held as early as 1292 on Saturday .
See also:Elizabeth in 1566 granted the town its great charter which ratified and extended all previous grants, including the gild merchant, the weekly market on Saturday and the two
See also:annual fairs, in
See also:August for eight days and in
See also:October for seven days .
See also:Charles II. in 1662 and 1685 granted charters, by the latter of which an additional weekly market on Wednesday was conceded and a three days' fair beginning on the 16th of
See also:March . The most important
See also:industry used to be woollen
See also:weaving . Elizabeth's charter granted to the corporation all fees received from the sealing of
See also:cloth within the borough, and in 1571 the mayor reported that the cloths usually made near Preston were " narrow
See also:white kearses." Other early
See also:industries were glove-making and
See also:linen cloth . The first
See also:mill was built in 1777 in
See also:Moor Lane, and in 1791 John Horrocks built the Yellow Factory . In 1835 there were
See also:forty factories, chiefly spinning, yielding 70,000 lb of cotton
See also:yarn weekly . A gild existed perhaps in Saxon times, but the
See also:grant of a gild merchant
See also:dates from Henry II.'s charter, about 1179 . The first gild of which there was any record was celebrated in 1328, at which it was decided to hold a gild every twenty years . Up to 1542, however, they do not appear to have been very regularly celebrated, but 1 The
See also:Court leet was held twice a year up to 1835 . since that year they have been and still are held at intervals of twenty years . A
See also:special gild mayor is appointed on each occasion .
The first mention of a procession at the gild is in 1500 . One of the most important items of business was the enrolling of freemen, and the gild rolls are records of thepopulation . In 1397 the gild
See also:roll contained the names of over 200 in-burgesses and too
See also:foreign burgesses; in 1415 the number of in-burgesses was 188, which in 1459 had declined to 72 . In 1582 there were over 500 in-burgesses and 340 out-burgesses . There is no evidence for, but rather against, the
See also:common statement that Preston was burnt or razed to the ground during the Scottish invasion of 1322 . The town suffered severely from the Black
See also:Death in 1349–1350, when as many as 3000 persons are said to have died, and again in the year
See also:November 163o to November 1631, moo died of pestilence . During the
See also:Civil War Preston sided with the
See also:king and became the headquarters of the Royalists in Lancashire . In
See also:February 1643 Sir John
See also:Seaton with a Parliamentary force marched from Manchester and successfully assaulted it . A strong Parliamentary garrison was established here and its fortifications repaired, but in March the earl of Derby recaptured the town . The Royalists did not garrison it, but after demolishing the greater
See also:part of the
See also:left it unfortified . After the
See also:battle of Marston Moor
See also:Rupert marched through Preston in
See also:September 1644 and carried the mayor and bailiffs prisoners to
See also:Castle, where they were confined for twelve months . On the 17th of August 1648 the Royalist forces under the duke of
See also:Hamilton and General Langdale were defeated at Preston by
See also:Cromwell with a loss of 'coo killed and 4000 taken prisoners .
See also:Rebellion of 1715 the
See also:rebel forces entered Preston on the 9th of November, and after proclaiming the Chevalier de St
See also:George king at the
See also:cross in the market-place, remained here for some days, during which the
See also:government forces advanced . The town was assaulted, and on the 14th of November General
See also:Forster surrendered his army of about 1400 men to the king's forces . In 1745 Prince Charles Edward marched through on the way south and north, but the town took no part in the rebellion . The borough returned two members from 1295 to 1331, then ceased to exercise the
See also:privilege on account of poverty till 1529, but since that date (except in 1653) it has always sent two representatives to parliament . The curious institution of the
See also:mock mayor and corporation of Walton, which was at its foundation in 1701 a Jacobite association, ceased after 1766 to be of any
See also:political significance and lapsed in 'Soo . There was probably a church here in Saxon times and it is believed to be one of the three churches in Amounderness mentioned in Domesday Book . In 1o94 it is named in a charter of Roger de Poictou . The early dedication was to St
See also:Wilfrid, but probably about 1531, when it was rebuilt, it was re-dedicated to St John . At the
See also:time of the Reformation, many, especially among the neighbouring gentry, clung to the old faith, and there is still a large Roman Catholic population . There were two monastic
See also:foundations here: a hospital dedicated to St Mary Magdalene, which stood on the Maudlands, and a Franciscan convent of
See also:Grey Friars situated to the west of Friargate . In the 18th century Preston had a high reputation as a centre of fashionable society, and earned the epithet still familiarly associated with it, " proud." See H . Fishwick,
See also:History of the Parish of Preston (19oo) .
JOHN PRESTON (1587-1628)
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