PRETORIA , the administrativecapital of the Union of South Africa and of the province of the
See also:Transvaal, 46 m. by
See also:rail N. by E. of
See also:Johannesburg . Pop . (1904) 36,839, of whom 21,114 were whites . Pretoria is situated on the banken veld or
See also:northern slopes of the high veld, on both
See also:banks of the Aapies tributary of the
See also:Limpopo, and is 4470 ft. above the
See also:sea, being 1300 ft.
See also:lower than Johannesburg . Built in a hollow surrounded by hills, the aspect of the
See also:town with the
See also:river flowing through it and its broad streets lined with willows is picturesque . In summer the
See also:heat and moisture are excessive, and the Aapies (which is spanned by four bridges) is liable to floods . The town is regularly laid out in rectangular blocks of
See also:uniform width . The older
See also:part lies on the west side of the Aapies River and between it and a smaller stream known as the Spruit . In the centre of this part of Pretoria is
See also:Church Square, so named from the Dutch Reformed Church which stood in it, but was demolished in 1905 .
See also:Government buildings on the south side of the square contain the
See also:chambers of the Provincial Council and other public offices . They were erected in 1892 and are a handsome
See also:block in
See also:style, three-storied, with a central tower surmounted by a statue of Liberty . On the
See also:north side of the square are the
See also:law courts, on the west side the
See also:Office .
Thechief banking offices are also in the square .
See also:Running east and west from Church Square is Church Street, the chief business thoroughfare . A little east of Church Square this street opens on to Market Square, with commodious market buildings . The former
See also:Presidency, the residence of Paul Kruger, is at the western end of the street near the Spruit . Opposite it is the Dopper Church, in which Kruger used occasionally to preach . Other churches in the heart of the town include the
See also:cathedral, dedicated to St
See also:Alban, and the Presbyterian Church, both in Schoemans Street, the
See also:Roman Catholic Church in Koch Street with
See also:schools, convent buildings and extensive grounds, and the new Dutch Reformed Church in Vermeulen Street . In the north of the town is the
See also:National Museum and adjacent are the Zoological Gardens . Other public buildings are the government library, the University
See also:College and the
See also:house . East of the Aapies and on the slopes of the hills are the residential districts of
See also:Arcadia, Sunnyside and Muckleneuk . Bryntirion, a suburb on the northern slopes of the hills, contains the residences of the chief officials, including Government House . Here is Meintjes Kop, with a broad natural shelf midway below the
See also:summit . This shelf was chosen in 1909 as the site of the public offices of the Union .
The designs of Mr
See also:Baker were accepted for two large blocks of identical design connected by a semicircular
See also:colonnade (passing behind the narrow kloof which bisects the shelf) . Besides other open spacesthere is
See also:park, originally planned, during the first
See also:British occupation, as a botanical
See also:garden . It is beautifully wooded and through it runs the Spruit . A park and sports ground at the western end of the town contains the pedestal for a statue of
See also:President Kruger . The statue itself remained for years at Lourengo Marques and appears to have been lost . Adjoining this park on the north is the cemetery . Among those buried there are Kruger and many of the British who fell during the war of 1899-1902 .
See also:Hill, which rises 400 ft. above the plain, is west of the park . The
See also:plateau at its
See also:foot was the site of the
See also:laager during the war of 188o-81, and is now occupied by the central railway station and workshops . North of the cemetery is the prison, a
See also:building which replaces a notoriously insanitary
See also:gaol used during the republican regime . The
See also:water supply of Pretoria is
See also:drawn from the source of the Aapies River, where rise magnificent springs . The Fountains, as they are called, are 3 M. west of Pretoria .
Some 3 M. north of the town is the Wonderboom, an enormous
See also:wild fig-
See also:tree, the only one of its kind in the
See also:district . At West Fort, 7 m. from the town, is a leper
See also:asylum; at Waterval, 15 m. north, the British prisoners captured by the Boers up to the fall of Pretoria were confined .
See also:miles east by north of Pretoria is the Premier
See also:Diamond mine . Bronkhorst Spruit, where in
See also:December 1880 a detachment of British soldiers was ambushed by the Boers, lies about 30 M. east by south of the town .
See also:History.—Pretoria was founded in 1855, the ground on which it stands being
See also:purchased by the
See also:Boer government from Marthinus
See also:Pretorius . It was made the centre of a new district created at the same
See also:time, both town and district being named in
See also:honour of Andries Pretorius . By treaty between the South
See also:African Republic (then comprising the districts of
See also:Rustenburg, Pretoria and
See also:Zoutpansberg) and the re-public of
See also:Lydenburg, concluded at Pretoria in 186o, the two republics were
See also:united and Pretoria chosen as the capital of the whole state, and in
See also:September of that
See also:year the Volksraad held its first
See also:meeting in the new capital . Until 1864, however, when the
See also:civil war in the Transvaal ended, Potchefstroom remained the virtual capital of the
See also:country . From that year the seat of government has always been at Pretoria . There in 1877
See also:Theophilus Shepstone proclaimed the annexation of the Transvaal to
See also:Great Britain . In December 188o it was invested by the Boers, but held out until the conclusion of peace . In 1881 the
See also:convention restoring self-government to the Transvaal was signed at Pretoria .
From that time until Igloo the dominating figure in the town was that of the president—Paul Kruger . Asrevenue flowed in from the gold-mines on the
See also:Rand many
See also:fine buildings were erected in the capital, which was placed in rail-way communication with Cape Town in 1893 and with Lourengo Marques and
See also:Durban in 1895 . To Pretoria Dr
See also:Jameson and his troopers were brought prisoners (
See also:January 1886) after the fight at Doornkop (to be handed over in a few days to the British government), and thither also were brought the Reform
See also:Committee prisoners from Johannesburg . In May Igloo Kruger fled from the town, which on the 5th of
See also:June surrendered without resistance to
See also:Lord Roberts, despite its formidable encircling forts, which however were never effectively armed . On the 31st of May 1902 the articles of peace whereby the Boer leaders re-cognized British
See also:sovereignty were signed at Pretoria, and five years later there assembled in the capital the first parliament of the Transvaal as a self-governing state of the British
See also:Empire . On the
See also:establishment of the Union of South Africa in 1910 Pretoria became its administrative capital, the seat of the legislature being however at Cape Town . The Transvaal parliament was replaced by a Provincial Council (see TRANSVAAL: § History) . The town is governed by a
See also:municipality, which since 1903 has acquired
See also:control of the sanitary service, water supply, electric
See also:lighting and tramways . In 1909 the proportional
See also:system was adopted for the election of town councillors .
SIR JOSEPH PRESTWICH (1812-1896)
i am looking for info about pretoria b 4 the boer s settled here . when i was little my grandpa told me that my people Maubane were removed from where today is the pretoria station and his in law the Morolo people were owning the land where the union building is,please any 1 with this info help just want to know more about this. Mmabatho Maubane
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