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PRIMATES (Lat. primas, first)

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Originally appearing in Volume V22, Page 332 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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PRIMATES (Lat. primas, first), the name given by Linnaeus to the highest order of mammals (see MAMMALIA), which was taken by him to include not only man, apes, monkeys and lemurs, but likewise bats. The latter group is now separated as a distinct order (see CHIROPTERA). It has also been proposed PRIMATES to remove from the Primates the lemurs, constituting the group Prosimiae, or Lemuroidea, to form an order by themselves; but general opinion is now against this view, and they are accordingly here regarded as representing a sub-order of Primates, all the other members of which are included in a second sub-ordinal group—the Anthropoidea, or Simiae. Support to the view that lemurs should be included in the order is afforded by the discovery in Madagascar of an extinct species (Nesopithecus) presenting certain characters connecting it with monkeys on the one hand and with lemurs on the other. In this broader sense the Primates may briefly be defined as follows. All the members of the order are plantigrade mammals, normally with five fingers and five toes, which are generally armed with broad flattened nails, although these are rarely replaced on single digits, or on all the digits, by claws or claw-like nails. The dental formula is i.2i c. -, d. 1(1), m.I (2); all the teeth in advance of the molars being normally preceded by milk-teeth. The molars are three-, four- or five-cusped, but the cusps may in some cases coalesce into transverse ridges. The thumb and great toe are, as a rule, opposable to the other digits. The clavicles (collar-bones) are complete; there is nearly always a free centrale bone in the wrist, or carpus, in which the scaphoid and lunar are likewise generally separate. The orbits (and the eyes) are directed more or less forwards, and generally surrounded by bone (fig. I), while the lower jaw has a vertical movement on the upper. With a few exceptions the stomach is simple; and a duodeno jejunal flexure of the intestine and a caecum are p1 esent. The diet is generally vegetable, but may be mixed, or, rarely,consisting of insects. The uterus may be either bicornuate or simple; and the placenta either discoidal and deciduate, or diffuse and , non-deciduate, with a great development of the allantois. The clitoris may or may not be perforate; the penis is pendent; and the testes are extra-abdominal, situate either in a scrotum behind the penis or in a similarly situated fold of the integument. At most the teats are four in number, but generally only two situated on the breast, although occasionally abdominal or even inguinal. As a rule only a single offspring is produced at a birth, such offspring being always born in a completely helpless condition. With the exception of man, who has adapted himself to exist in all climates, the Primates are essentially a tropical and sub-tropical group, although some of the monkeys inhabit districts where the winter climate is severe. The great majority—in fact nearly all—of the members of the order are arboreal in their habits. In size there is great variation, the extremes in this respect being represented by man and the gorilla on the one side, and the marmosets and tarsiers, which are no larger than squirrels, on the other. As regards the proper meaning of the popular names " monkey," " baboon " and " ape," it appears that these are in the main general terms which, with the exception of the second, may be applied indifferently to all the members of the first sub-order. " Baboon " appears to be properly applicable to the dog-faced African species, and may therefore be conveniently restricted to the members of the genus Papio and their immediate . relatives. " Ape," on the other hand, may be specially used for the tailless man-like representatives of the order; while the term " monkey " may be employed for all the rest, other than lemurs; monkeys being, however, divisible into sub-groups, such as macaques, langurs, guerezas, mangabeys, &c. This usage cannot, however, be universally employed, and the term " monkeys " may be employed for the entire group. Anthropoidea.—The Primates, as already mentioned, are divisible into two main groups, or sub-orders, of which the first includes man, apes, baboons and monkeys. For this group Professor Max Weber employs the name Simiae (in contradistinction to Prosimiae for the lemurs). Since, however, to take as the title for a group which includes man himself the designation of creatures so much lower in the scale is likely to be repugnant, it seems preferable to employ the designation Anthropoidea for the higher division of the order. As the essential features distinguishing the Anthropoidea from the second sub-order may best be indicated under the heading of the latter, reference may at once be made to some of the more striking characters of the members of the former group. The proportions of the body as regards the relative lengths of the two pairs of limbs to one another and to that of the trunk vary considerably. Both pairs may be much elongated, as in Ateles and Hylobates, and either sub-equally, as in the first of these, or with the arms greatly in excess, as in the second. The legs may be excessively short, and the arms, at the same time, excessively long, as in the orang-utan. Both pairs may be short and sub-equal, as in many of the baboons (Papio). Only in Nyctipithecus and the Hapalidae does the excess in length of the lower limbs over the upper exceed or equal that which is found in man. The length of the tail presents some noteworthy points. It is found at its greatest absolute length, and also greatly developed relatively, being about twice the length of the trunk, in such monkeys as the Indian langurs; but its greatest relative length is attained in the spider-monkeys (Ateles), where it reaches three times the length of the trunk. The constancy of the degree of its development varies much in different groups. In the greater number of genera it is long in all the species, and in some (Simia, Ant hropopithecus and Hylobates) it is absent in all. In others it may be long or short, or completely absent, as in macaques (Macacus). The form of the head presents great differences—it may be rounded, as in Ateles; produced vertically, as in Simia; drawn out posteriorly to an extreme degree, as in Chrysothrix; or anteriorly, as in the baboons. A production of the muzzle, necessitated by the presence of large teeth, exists in the chimpanzee (Anthropopithecus), but in the baboons, not only is this prolongation carried farther, but the terminal position of the nostrils gives a dog-like aspect to the face. The eyes may be small compared with the size of the head, as in the baboons; but they may, on the contrary, attain a relatively enormous size, as in Nyctipithecus. They are always forwardly directed, and never much more separated one from another than in man; they may, however, be more closely approximated, as in the squirrel-monkeys (Chrysothrix) of South America. The ears are always well developed; and very generally have their postero-superior angle pointed. They may be large and small in the same genus, as in Anthropopithecus (chimpanzee and gorilla) ; but only in the gorilla do we find, even in a rudimentary condition, that soft depending portion of the human ear termed the " lobule." The nose has scarcely ever more than a slight prominence, and yet an enormous development is to be met with in the proboscis-monkey (Nasalis) ; while in the snub-nosed monkeys (Rhino pithecus) we find a sharply prominent, though smaller and extremely upturned nose. The hoolock gibbon also possesses a prominent but slightly aquiline nose. The terminal position of the nostrils in the baboons has already been mentioned. These apertures may be closely approximated, as in all the man-like apes (Simiidae and Hylobatidae) , or they may be separated one from the other by a broad septum, as in the Cebidae, its breadth, however, varying somewhat in different genera, as in Ateles and Eriodes, and Callithrix and Nyctipithecus. The lips are generally thin, but may be very extensile, as in the orang-utan. The hands are generally provided with thumbs, though these organs (as in the African guerezas, Colobus, and the American spider-monkeys, Ateles) may be represented only by small nailless tubercles. The thumb is more human in its proportions in the chimpanzee than in any other of the higher apes. As compared with the length of the hand, it is most man-like in the lowest American monkeys, such as Chrysothrix and Hapale. In spite of greater relative length it may, however, little merit the name of thumb, as it is but slightly opposable to the other digits in any of the American monkeys, and is not at all so in the Hapalidae. The " great toe " is never rudimentary and, except in man, in place of being thelongest digit of the foot, is constantly the shortest. As compared with the entire length of the foot, it is most man-like in the chimpanzee and some gibbons, and smallest of all in the orang-utan, and next smallest in Hapale. Every digit is provided with a nail, except the great toe of the orang-utan and the rudimentary tubercle representing the thumb in Ateles and Colobus. The nail of the great toe is flat in every species, but the other nails are never so flat as are the nails of man. The lateral compression of the nails becomes more strongly marked in some Cebidae, e.g. Eriodes, but attains its extreme in the Hapalidae, where every nail, except that of the great toe, assumes the form of a long, curved and sharply pointed claw. With the single exception of man, the body is almost entirely clothed with copious hair, and never has the back naked. In the gibbons, the langurs, the macaques and the baboons, naked spaces (ischiatic callosities) are present on that part of the body which is the main support in the sitting posture. These naked spaces are subject to swelling at the season of sexual excitement. Such naked spaces are never found in any of the American monkeys. No ape or monkey has so exclusive and preponderating a development of hair on the head and face as exists in man. As to the head, long hair is found thereon in Hapale oedipus and in some of the langurs and guerezas, 'whilst certain macaques, like the Chinese bonnetmonkey(Macacus sinicus) , have the hair of the head long and radiating in all directions from a central point on the crown. A beard is developed in the male orang-utan; and the Diana monkey (Cercopithecus dana) has long hair on the cheeks and chin. The wanderoo (Macacus silenus) has the face encircled by a kind of mane of long hairs; and many of the marmosets have a long tuft of hairs on each side of the head. American monkeys exhibit some extremes respecting hair-development. Thus in some of the howlers (as in some of the guerezas of the Old World) the hair of the flanks is greatly elongated. Some also have an elongated beard, but the latter structure attains its maximum of development in the couxio (Pithecia satanas). Some of the species of the American genus Pithecia have the hair of the body and tail very long, others have the head of the female furnished with elongated hair; while the allied Uacaria calva has the head bald. Long hair may be developed from the shoulders as in Papio hamadryas and Theropithecus gelada. Very long hair is also developed on the back of the snub-nosed monkeys (Rhino pithecus) in winter. The direction of the hair may sometimes vary in nearly allied forms, the hairs on the arm and fore-arm respectively being often so directed that the tips converge towards the elbow. Such is the case in most of the higher apes, yet in Hylobates agilis all the hair of both these segments is directed towards the wrist. The hair presents generally no remarkable character as to its structure. It may, however, be silky, as in Hapale rosalia, or assume the character of wool, as in the woolly spider-monkeys (Eriodes) and Macacus tibetanus, which inhabits Tibet. the great relative length of the facial part of the Skull. Great brilliance of colour is sometimes found in the naked parts of the body, particularly in the baboons and some of the other Cercopithecidae, and especially in the regions of the face and sexual organs. Among these latter rose, turquoise-blue, green, golden-yellow and vermilion appear, in various combinations, in one or other or both of these regions, and become especially brilliant at the period of sexual excitement. The skeleton, more especially in the higher forms, is in the main similar to that of man, so that only a brief notice is necessary. In the skull considerable variation in regard to the proportionate length of the face to that of the brain-case (cranial portion) exists in the two sexes, owing to the general development of large tusks in the males (other than in man, who is not now under consideration). Generally speaking, the elongation of the facial portion, as compared to the cranial, increases as we pass from the higher to the lower forms. The increase does not, however, occur regularly, being greater in the orang-utan and chimpanzee than in some of the langurs (Semnopithecus, fig. I) ; the maximum development of this feature occurs in the dog-faced baboons (Papio, fig. 2). In American monkeys, with the exception of the howlers (Alouata, fig. 3), the facial part is relatively smaller than in Old World monkeys and apes; while in the squirrel-monkeys (Chrysothrix) it is even smaller than in man himself. In none of the Old World group does the forehead present that rounded and elevated contour characteristic of man, although the height of this region is great in the orang-utan (fig. 4). Curiously enough, American monkeys, especially those included in Pithecia, are the most man-like in this respect. The skull of the male gorilla is characterized by the great development of the crests for muscular attachment, one of these (superciliary) overhanging the orbits, a second (sagittal) traversing the middle line of the upper surface, while a third (lambdoid) forms an inverted V on the occiput, and affords attachment for the muscles of the neck. In the gorilla the orbits are much as in man, but in the orang-utan they are more rounded. They become very large in Hylobates, but attain an enormous size in the American Nyctipithecus. The extent to which each orbit opens into the adjacent temporal fossa, i.e. the size and shape of the sphenomaxillary fissure, varies considerably; this is narrow and much elongated in the gorilla and the baboons, but short in the langurs and spider-monkeys. It is most closed in the howlers, where it sometimes all but disappears entirely. The mastoid process never attains the large relative size it has in man; but it is prominent in the baboons and larger macaques, as well as in the chimpanzee and gorilla, its development bearing relation to the size and weight of the head. As the mastoid diminishes, the under surface of the petrosal assumes a swollen or bladder-like condition. The plane of the foramen magnum, as compared with the basicranial axis, varies with the projection of the occiput; it generally forms a less open angle with that axis than in man, but in Chrysothrix the angle is yet more open than in the human skull. The cheek, or zygomatic, arches bend outwards and upwards in the gorilla and some baboons, but decrease in relative as well as absolute size in the smaller forms—notably in Chrysothrix. No long slender styloid process is normally attached to the skull, though such may be the case in the baboons. An external bony auditory meatus (or tube) is present in Old World but absent in New World monkeys. In all apes and monkeys the premaxillae have a distinctness of development and a relative size not found in man; the sutures separating them from the maxillae remaining visible, except in the chimpanzee, after the adult dentition has been attained. The maxillae develop great swollen tuberosities in the baboons and the black ape of Celebes. The nasal bones are small, and generally flatter than in man; being in the orang-utan quite flat. They are convex in some langurs and all baboons; but the proboscis-monkey has its nasals no more developed than those of other species. The nasals seem to attain their maximum of relative size in the howlers. The lower jaw, or mandible, is always in one piece in adults; and is most man-like in the siamang, which alone has a slight chin. On the other hand, in other gibbons the angle is produced downwards and backwards, as also in marmosets. Its maximum of relative size is attained in the howlers (fig. 3), where the broad ascending part serves to protect and shelter the enormously developed body of the hyoid. Air-cells may be developed, as in the gorilla, in the parts adjacent to the mastoid. Frontal sinuses are generally absent in the Old World group, being replaced by coarse cellular bone. In old age the sutures of the skull become obliterated, the one between the two nasals disappearing at an early age in Old World monkeys. In the spider-monkeys and howlers the tentorium, or membrane dividing the hemispheres of the brain from the cerebellum, becomes bony. The spinal column of apes and monkeys always lacks the S-like curvature of that of man, the nearest approach to this occurring in the baboons (fig. 2). The number of dorsal vertebrae varies from eleven in some species of Cercopithecus and Macacus to fourteen in certain gibbons or fifteen in the American night-apes (Nyctipithecus). In the American Cebidae the number seldom falls below thirteen ; in the orang-utan it is twelve, as in man, but thirteen in the chimpanzee and gorilla. In most cases the dorsal and lumbar regions are about equal in length, but the lumbar region is the shorter in the man-like group, and less than half the length of the dorsal in the gorilla. The lumbar spinous processes are vertical, or project backwards in the man-like apes, gibbons and spider-monkeys; in the others they project forwards, especially in Cebidae. The lumbar transverse processes project outwards, more or less at right angles to the axis of the spine, or else forwards. The sacrum attains its greatest absolute length in the gorilla, but is relatively longer than in man in all the man-like group. Hylobates has the relatively longest sacrum. The number of vertebrae included in the sacrum varies more or less with age; with the exception of the Simiidae and Hylobatidae, there are generally only two or three; but in Aides, Hylobates, and Uacaria there may be four; while in the Simiidae there are always five, and sometimes six. In most apes the sacrum and lumbar vertebrae lie in one slightly curved line, the gorilla and champanzee presenting in this respect a great contrast to the human structure. In the orang-utan the sacrovertebral angle is rather more marked; but in some baboons it is so much so as almost to rival that of man. With the exception of the man-like apes and gibbons and the Barbary ape (Macacus inuus), the caudal vertebrae of monkeys exceed four in number; but the mandril, Papio (Maimon) maimon, has sometimes only five. The short-tailed macaques and uakaris have from about fifteen to seventeen, the shortness of the tail being occasioned rather by a diminution in the size of the component vertebrae than by a decrease in number. In the other forms the number varies between twenty and thirty-three, the latter being the number attained in the spider-monkeys (fig. 5). The proportion borne by this region of the spine to the more anterior parts is greatest in the spider-monkeys of the genus Ateles, almost three to one; in the other longest-tailed genera it is rarely so large as two to one. The absolute length of the tail is greatest in the langurs and guerezas, where also the individual caudal vertebrae attain their greatest length, namely two inches. The caudal vertebrae generally increase in length from the sacrum till about the seventh, eighth or ninth, which, with the tenth and eleventh, are the longest in most long-tailed forms. In Ateles the eleventh, twelfth, thirteenth and fourteenth vertebrae are the longest. In most members of the sub-order the breast-bone, or sternum, is narrow, and consists of a more or less enlarged upper portion, or manubrium, followed by a chain of sub-equal elongated bones from three to six in number. In man, man-like apes and gibbons there is, however, a broad sternum; or one consisting of a manubrium, followed by one bone only, as in Hylobates. In the orang-utan the breast-bone long remains made up of ossifications arranged in pairs, side by side, successively. The true ribs are seven in number on each side in the highest forms, but in Hylobates there are sometimes eight; in Ateles there are sometimes nine pairs; in Hapale the number varies from six to eight, and from seven to eight in the other genera. The " angles " of the ribs are never so marked as in man; most so in Hylobates. Pithecia is distinguished by the greater relative breadth of the ribs. In no ape or monkey is the thorax half as broad again as it is deep from back to breast. Nevertheless, in the Simiidae and Hylobatidae, its transverse diameter exceeds its depth by from about one-fourth to a little under one-third of the latter. In Ateles (and sometimes also in Alouata) the thorax is wider than deep, but in the rest it is deeper than wide. The greatest absolute length of the fore-limb occurs in the gorilla (fig. 6) and the orang-utan. The humerus never has a perforation (entepicondylar) on the inner side of its lower extremity. Except in the man-like apes, the ulna articulates with the wrist (carpus). The hand is capable of pronation and supination on the fore-arm; and except in man, the chimpanzee and the gorilla there is a centrale in the carpus. The phalanges are the same in number in apes and monkeys as in man, except that in Ateles and Colobus the thumb may have but one small nodular phalange or none. The phalanges are generally more curved than in man, and, except in the Hapalidae, the terminal ones are flattened from back to front. In the Hapalidae they are laterally compressed, curved, and pointed to support the claws characteristic of that family. The length of the thumb with its metacarpal bears a much greater proportion to that of the spine in Hylobates and Simia than in man. With the exception of Ateles and Colobus, the shortest thumb, thus estimated, is found in Nyclipithecus and Chrysothrix. The hind-limb, measured from the summit of the femur to the tip of the longest digit, is absolutely greatest in the gorilla, and then in the orang-utan and the chimpanzee. If the foot be removed, the leg of the chimpanzee is longer than that of the orang-utan. The ankle, or tarsus, consists of the same seven bones as in man, and these bones are so arranged, or bound together by ligaments, as to form a trans- verse and an antero-posterior arch. In no ape or monkey, however, do the lower ends of the inner metatarsals form the anterior point of support of the antero-posterior arch, as in man. The calcaneum, except in the gorilla, is shorter compared with the spine than in man. The phalanges of the foot are the same in number as in man, except that the great toe of the orang-utan has often but one. They are very like their representatives in the hand, and are convex above, concave and flattened below. Only in the Hapalidae are the terminal phalanges laterally compressed instead of flattened. The toes are never nearly so short relatively in apes and monkeys as in man; yet the proportion borne by the great toe, with its metatarsal, to the spine closely approximates in the gorilla to the proportion existing in man, and this proportion is exceeded in Hylobates and Ateles. Omitting all reference to the muscles, we find that in apes and monkeys the absolute size of the brain never approaches that of man; the cranial capacity being never less than 55 cub. in. in any normal human subject, while in the orang-utan and chimpanzee it is but 26 and 271 cub. in. respectively. The relative size of the brain varies inversely with the size of the whole body, as is the case in warm-blooded vertebrates generally. The hemispheres of the brain are almost always so much developed as to cover over the cerebellum, the only exceptions being the howlers and the siamang (Hylobates syndactylus). In the latter the cerebellum is slightly uncovered, but it is considerably so in the former. In Chrysothrix the posterior lobes are more largely developed relatively than in man. As in mammals generally, much convoluted hemispheres are correlated with a considerable absolute bulk of body. Thus in Hapale (and here only) we find the hemispheres quite smooth, the only groove being that which represents the Sylvian fissure. In Simia and Anthropopithecus, on the contrary, they are richly convoluted. A hippocampus minor is present in all apes and monkeys, and in some Cebidae is larger relatively than in man, and absolutely larger than the hippocampus major. Of all apes and monkeys the orang-utan has a brain most like that-of man; indeed it may be said to be like man's in all respects save that it is much inferior in size and weight, and that the hemispheres are more symmetrically convoluted and less complicated by minor foldings. The human brain, as known by European specimens, has been supposed to differ from that of apes and monkeys by the absence of the so-called simian fold (Affenspalte) on the posterior portion of the main hemispheres. On studying a large series of Egyptian and Sudani brains, Professor G. Elliot Smith finds, however, that this simian fold, or sulcus, can be distinctly recognized. " It is easy," he writes, " to select examples from the series of Egyptian and Sudanese brains in my possession, in which the pattern formed by the occipital sulci on the lateral surface of the hemisphere in individual anthropoid apes is so exactly reproduced that the identity of every sulcus is placed beyond reasonable doubt. . . . And if we take individual examples of gorilla-brains, it becomes still easier to match the occipital pattern of each of them to numerous human brains.... It is easy to appreciate the difficulties which have beset investigators of European types of brain, and to understand the reasons for the common belief in the absence of the supposed distinctly simian sulci in the lateral aspect of the occipital region of the human brain." In no ape or monkey does the series of teeth form so perfect an arch as in man, the opposite series of cheek-teeth tending to become more parallel. None has the teeth placed in one uninterrupted series in each jaw, as is the case in the human species; but there is always a small gap between the upper canine and the adjacent incisor, and between the lower canine and the adjacent premolar. This condition is due to the excessive size of the canines, the inter-spaces giving passage to the tips of these teeth. This prolongation of the canines into tusk-like weapons of offence and defence (especially developed in the males) makes a great difference between the aspect of the dentition in apes and man. The number of the teeth is the same as in man in all Old World Primates. The New World Cebidae have an additional premolar on each side of each jaw, while the Hapalidae have a molar the less. The incisors are nearly vertical, save in Pithecia and its allies, where their tips project forward. The canines are considerably longer than the incisors, except in Hapale, where the lower incisors equal them in length. The premolars differ structurally from the molars much as in man, except that the first lower one may be modified in shape to give passage to the upper canine, as in the baboons. The grinding surface of the molars consists generally of two incomplete transverse ridges, the end of each ridge projecting more than the intermediate part, indicating the position of the four original tubercles. In the man-like apes there is, however, in the upper molars a ridge running obliquely from the front inner tubercle, or cusp, outwards and backwards to the hind outer tubercle. In the Cercopithecidae this ridge is wanting, but it reappears in Ateles and Alouata amongst the Cebidae. In the Hapalidae the tubercles of the molars are more produced and sharp-pointed, in harmony with the insectivorous habits of the marmosets. The last lower molar may be reduced or much enlarged as compared with the others. Thus in Cercopithecus talapoin it has but three tubercles, while in the macaques and baboons it is very large, and has five well-developed cusps. The number of milk-teeth is as in man, except that American monkeys have an additional one. In general the canines are the last teeth to be cut of the permanent dentition, their cutting sometimes causing such constitutional disturbance as to produce convulsions and death. In the gibbons, however, the canines accompany, if they do not precede, the appearance of the hindmost molar, while in the orang-utan they at least sometimes make their appearance before the latter. The stomach is simple in all apes and monkeys except langurs, Fin. 6.-Skeleton of the Gorilla (A nthropopiihecus gorilla), to exhibit the flattened sternum,the broad and shallow thorax, and the great length of the fore-limbs. guerezas, and their allies. It is especially human in shape in Hylobates. except that the pylorus is somewhat more elongated and distinct. It is of a rounded form in Pithecia, and in Hapale the cardiac orifice is exceptionally near the pylorus. In the langur group it is sacculated, especially at the cardiac end, being, in fact, very like a colon spirally coiled. The intestine is devoid of valvulae connivenles, but provided with a well-developed caecum, which is, however, short and conical in the baboons. Only in the man-like apes is there a vermiform appendix. The colon may be much longer relatively than in man, as in the man-like apes; it may be greatly sacculated, as in Hylobates; or devoid of sacculations, as in Cebus. The liver may be very like man's, especially in gibbons, the orang-utan, and the chimpanzee; but in the gorilla both the right and left lobes are cleft by a fissure almost as much as in the baboons. In the langur group the liver is much divided, and placed obliquely to accommodate the sacculated stomach. The lateral lobes in Hapale are much larger than the central lobe. The caudate lobe is very large in Cebidae, especially in Ateles, and above all in Pithecia. There is always a gall-bladder. The larynx in many members of the sub-order is furnished with sac-like appendages, varying in different species as regards number, size and situation. They may be dilatations of the laryngeal ventricle (opening into the larynx below the false vocal chords), as in the man-like apes; or they may open above the false vocal chords so as to be extensions of the thyro-hyoid membrane, as in gibbons. There may be but a single median opening in the front part of that membrane at the base of the epiglottis, as in Cercopithecidae, or there may be a single median opening at the back of the trachea, just below the cricoid cartilage, as in spider-monkeys; and while there is in some instances only a single sac, in other instances, as in the howlers, there may be five. These may be enormous, meeting in the middle line in front, and extending down to the axillae, as in the gorilla and orang-utan. Finally a sac may occupy the cavity of the expanded body of the hyoid-bone, as in howlers (fig. 3). The hyoid has its basilar part generally somewhat more convex and enlarged than in man; but in howlers it becomes greatly enlarged and deeply excavated, so as to form a great bony bladder-like structure (fig. 3). The cornua of the hyoid are never entirely absent, but the anterior or lesser cornua may be so, as in the howlers. The anterior cornua never exceed the posterior cornua in length; but they may be (Cercopithecus) more developed relatively than in man, and may even be jointed, as in Lagothrix. The lungs are generally similar to those of man, although, as in gibbons, the right one may be four-lobed. In the man-like apes the great arteries are likewise of the human type; but in the Hylobatidae and Cercopithecidae the left carotid may arise from the innominate. The discoidal and deciduate placenta is generally two-lobed, although single in the howlers; in the marmosets it is unusually thick. American monkeys differ from their Old World (From a sketch by Wolf from life.) Man-like Apes.—In common with man, the apes and monkeys of the Old World form a section—Catarrhina—of the sub-order Anthropoidea, characterized by the following features: There are only two pairs of premolar teeth, so that the complete dental formula is i, i, c. ., p. z, m. 1. The tympanum has an external bony tube, or meatus; but there is no tympanic bulla. A squalnosofrontal suture causes the frontal and the alisphenoid bones to enter largely into the formation of the orbital plate; and the orbitotemporal foramen is small. Cheek-pouches and callosities on the buttocks are frequently present. The nails are flat or rounded, the descending colon of the intestine has an S-like (sigmoid) flexure; q 0 i;. ;vs the caecum is simple, and there may be a vermiform appendix. The inter-nasal septum is thin, and the nostrils are directed outwards. The tail, which may be rudimentary, is never prehensile. The ethmoturbinal bones of the nasal chamber are typically united. Laryngeal sacs are commonly developed. In addition to the primary discoidal placenta, a secondary, and sometimes temporary one is developed. It does not come within the province of this article to treat of man (see ANTHROPOLOGY) ; but it may be mentioned that the distinctive characteristics of the family Hominidae (including the single genus Homo), as compared with those of the Simiidae, or man-like apes, are chiefly relative. These are shown by the greater size of the brain and brain-case as compared with the facial portion of the skull, smaller development of the canine teeth of the males, more complete adaptation of the structure of the vertebral column to the vertical position, greater length of the lower as compared with the upper extremities, and the greater length of the great toe, with almost complete absence of the power of bringing it in opposition to the other four toes. The last and the small size of the canine teeth are perhaps the most marked and easily defined distinctions that can be drawn between the two groups, so far as purely zoological characters are concerned. The regular arch formed by the series of teeth is, however, as already mentioned, another feature distinguishing man from the man-like apes. In common with the gibbons (Hylobatidae) the man-like apes, or Simiidae, are distinguished from the lower representatives of the present sub-order by the following features: The sternum is short and broad, and the thorax wide and shallow (fig. 6), while the pelvis, as shown in the same figure, is more or less laterally expanded, and hollow on its inner-surface; and the number of dorso-lumbar vertebrae ranges from sixteen to eighteen. The arm is longer than the leg; and while the hair on the fore-arm is directed upwards, that of the upper-arm slopes downwards to meet it at the elbow. Cheek-pouches are absent. The cusps of the molars are separate; and five in number above and four below. The caecum has a vermiform appendix; and the secondary placenta merely forms a temporary fold. The Simiidae are specially characterized by the absence of callosities on the buttocks; the presence of sixteen or seventeen dorso-lumbar vertebrae, and of twelve or thirteen pairs of ribs; the wrinkling of the enamel of the cheek-teeth; the great expansion and concavity of the iliac bones of the pelvis; and the application of only the edge of the sole of the foot to the ground in walking. apparently lack the lateral expansion of the face. Whether the Sumatran orang-utan should be regarded as a distinct species, with two local races, may be left an open question. (See ORANG-UTAN). Gibbons.—The comparatively small, long-armed and tailless Asiatic apes known as gibbons have been very generally included in the same family as the man-like apes; but since they differ in several important features—to say nothing of. their smaller bodily size—it has recently been proposed to refer them to a family apart, the Hylobatidae. The distinctive features of this family include the presence of small naked callosities on the buttocks, the possession of eighteen dorso-lumbar vertebrae and thirteen pairs of ribs, the absence of foldings in the enamel of the molar teeth, the, slight lateral expansion and concavity of the iliac bones of the pelvis, and the application of the whole sole of the foot to the ground in walking. The vertebral column presents no trace of the sigmoid flexure which is developed partially in the Simiidae and completely in the Hominidae. None of the gibbons have any rudiment of a tail; and the canines are elongated and tusk-like. When the body is erect, the arms are so long that they reach the ground. The great toe is well developed, reaching to the middle or end of the first joint of the adjacent toe; but the thumb only attains to, or reaches a little beyond, the upper end of the first joint of the index-finger. There is a centrale in the carpus. The laryngeal sacs are no longer prolongations of the laryngeal ventricles, but open into the larynx above the false vocal chords. The group is distributed throughout the forest-regions of south-eastern Asia, eastwards and southwards from Assam, and is represented by a considerable number of species. Among these, the siamang, Hylobates syndactylus, of Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula, differs from all the rest by the union of the index and third fingers up to the base of their terminal joints, in consequence of which this species is regarded as representing a sub-genus (Symphalangus) by itself, while all the others belong to Hylobates proper. The general colour of gibbons is either pale fawn or black, with or without a white band across the forehead. In a female from Hainan in the menagerie of the Zoological Society of London, the colour of the coat changed from black to fawn about the time full maturity was attained. Apparently no such change takes place in the male. According to Dr W. Volz, the two banks of the Lematang River in the Palembang district of Sumatra are respectively inhabited by two different species of gibbons—on the west bank is found the siamang (Hylobates syndactylus), while the country to the east of the river is the home of the agile gibbon, or waw-waw (H. agilis). It is not necessary to capture, or even to see, specimens of the two species in order to satisfy oneself as to their limitations, for they may be readily distinguished by their cries: the siamang calling in a single note, whereas the cry of the waw-waw forms two notes. The remarkable thing about their distribution in Palembang is that the two species are found in company throughout the rest of Sumatra; and even in Palembang itself they inhabit the mountain districts, where the river is so narrow that they could easily leap over it, and yet they keep to the opposite banks. Gibbons are perhaps the most agile of all the Old World monkeys, rivalling in this respect the American spider-monkeys, despite their lack of the prehensile tails of the latter (see GIBBON). Langur Group.—The well-known long-tailed langur monkeys of India and the adjacent regions are the first representatives of the third family of apes and monkeys, which includes all the remaining members of the sub-order now under consideration. In the Cercopithecidae, as the family is called, the following features are distinctive: The sternum, or breast-bone, is narrow and elongated, and the thorax compressed and wedge-shaped, while the iliac bones of the pelvis are narrow, with the inner surface flat; the dorso-lumbar vertebrae are nineteen or twenty in number. The front limbs are shorter than the hind pair; the whole sole of the foot is applied to the ground in walking; and the hair on the arm is directed down-wards from the shoulder to the hand. There are always bare callosities on the buttocks, and very generally cheek-pouches. The caecum is conical. Transverse ridges connect the cusps of the molars. The secondary placenta is fully developed. The first group of the family is represented by the langurs and their allies, collectively forming the sub-family Semnopithecinae, in which the tail and hind limbs are very long, and the body is slender; there are no cheek-pouches, but, on the other hand, the stomach is complicated by sacculations or pouches, and the last lower molar has a posterior heel, thus carrying five cusps. The thumb is small or absent, the callosities on the buttocks are also small, and the nails are narrow and pointed. The laryngeal sac (or throat-sac) opens in the middle line of the front of the larynx, and is formed by an extension of the thyro-hyoid membrane. Tne true langurs, of the genus Semnopithecus, in which a small thumb is retained, form a large group confined to south-eastern Asia, where it ranges from India and the Himalaya to Borneo and Sumatra by way of Burma, Cochin China and the Malay Peninsula. A well-known representative is the sacred hanuman monkey (S. entellus) of India, which, like the larger Himalayan S. schistaceus, is slate-coloured; the Bornean S. hosei, on the other hand, is wholly i It has been proposed to transfer the name Simia to the chim- maroon-red. Other species, like the Indian S. johni, have the head crested. The allied genus Rhinopithecus, as typified by the orange The existing members of the family are referable to at least two genera, the one African and the other Asiatic. The first genus, Anthropopithecus,' is typified by the West African chimpanzee, A. troglodytes (fig. 7), and is characterized by the absence of excessive elevation in the skull, by the fore limb not reaching more than half-way down the shin, the presence of thirteen pairs of ribs, the well-developed great toe, the absence of a centrale in the carpus, and the black or grey hair. There is a well-developed laryngeal sinus, which may extend downwards to the axilla. Chimpanzees are characterized by the large size of the ears, and typically by the small development of the supra-orbital ridges. The latter are, however, more developed in the Central African A. tchego (of which the kulu-kamba is a local phase) ; this form—whether regarded as a species or a race—being thus more gorilla-like (see CHIMPANZEE). The gorilla (Anthropopithecus gorilla, fig. 8), of which there are likewise several local forms, ranging from the West Coast through the forest-tract to East Central Africa, and apparently best regarded as sub-species, is frequently made the type of a second genus—Gorilla; but is extremely close to the chimpanzee, from which it is perhaps best distinguished by its much smaller ears. It is the largest of the apes, although the females are greatly inferior in stature and bulk to the males. The gorilla is also a much less completely arboreal ape than the chimpanzee, in consequence of which more of the sole of the foot is applied to the ground in walking. The enormous supra-orbital ridges of the skull of the male, and like-wise the large and powerful tucl s in that sex are very characteristic. A full-grown gorilla will stand considerably over six feet in height. According to Dr A. Keith, in addition to its smaller and flatter ears, the gorilla may be best distinguished from the chimpanzee by the presence of a nasal fold running to the margin of the upper lip; by the large size and peculiar characters of the tusks and cheek-teeth; by its broad, short, thicl: hands and feet, of which the fingers and toes are partially webbed; by the long heel; and by the relative length of the upper half of the arm as compared with the fore-arm. An important distinctive feature of the skull of the gorilla is the great length of the nasal bones. Finally, in adult life the gorilla is sharply differentiated from the chimpanzee by its sullen, untameable, ferocious disposition. As regards the relationship existing between the gorilla and the chimpanzee, Dr Keith observes: An examination of all the structural systems of the African anthropoids leads to the inference that the gorilla is the more primitive of the two forms, and approaches the common parent stock more nearly than does the chimpanzee. The teeth of the gorilla, individually and collectively, form a complete dentition, a dentition at the very highest point of development; the teeth of the chimpanzee show marked signs of retrogression in development both in size and structure. The muscular development and the consequent bony crests for muscular attachment of the gorilla far surpass those of the chimpanzee. The muscular development of the adult chimpanzee represents that of the adolescent gorilla. Some of the bodily organs of the gorilla belong to a simpler and earlier type than those of the chimpanzee. But in one point the chimpanzee evidently represents more nearly the parent form—its limbs and body are more adapted for arboreal locomotion; of the two, the gorilla shows the nearer approach to the human mode of locomotion. On the whole the evidence at our disposal points to the conclusion that the chimpanzee is a derivative from the gorilla stock, in which, with a progressive brain development, there have been retrograde changes in most of the other parts of the body. The various races of chimpanzee differ according to the degree to which these changes have been carried." (See GORILLA.) From both the chimpanzee and the gorilla the orang-utan, or mias (Simia satyrus), of Borneo and Sumatra is broadly distinguished by the extreme elevation of the skull (fig. 4), the excessive length of the fore limbs, which reach to the ankle, the presence of only twelve pairs of ribs and of a centrale in the carpus, the short and rudimentary great toe, and the bright-red colour of the hair. Adult males are furnished with a longish beard on the chin, and they may also develop a large warty prominence, consisting of fibrocellular tissue, on each side of the face, which thus assumes an extra-ordinary wide and-flattened form. There is no vestige of a tail. The hands are very long; but the thumb is short, not reaching the end of the metacarpal bone of the index-finger. The feet have exceedingly long toes, except the great toe, which only reaches to the middle of the first joint of the adjacent toe, and is often destitute not only of a nail, but of the second phalange also. It nevertheless possesses an opponens muscle. The brain has the hemispheres greatly convoluted, and is altogether more like the brain of man than is that of any other ape. A prolongation is developed from each ventricle of the larynx, and these processes in the adult become enormous, uniting together in front over the windpipe and forming one great sac which extends down between the muscles to the axilla. The canine teeth of adult males are very large. In Borneo the orang-utan displays great variability, and has accordingly been divided into a number of local races, in some of which the males panzee, on the ground that it was originally given to that animal. snub-nosed monkey, R. roxellanae (fig. 9), of eastern Tibet and Szechuen, is characterized by the curiously short and upturned nose and the long silky hair of the back, especially in the winter coat. In the typical species the predominating colour is orange, tending to yellowish-olive on the back; but in R. bieti of the mountains bordering the valley of the Mekon and R. brelichi of Central China it is slaty-grey. The third Asiatic genus is represented by the proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) of Borneo, in which the nose is extra-ordinarily elongated. The nose of the adult male is commonly (From Milne-Edwards.) The African guerezas, forming the genus Colobus, differ from their Asiatic cousins by the total loss of the thumb. Some of these monkeys, like Colobus satanas of West Africa, are wholly black; but in others, such as C. guereza (or abyssinicus), C. sharpei and C. caudatus of North-east and East Africa, forming the sub-genus Guereza, there is much long white hair, which in the species last-named forms a mantle on the sides of the body and an elongated fringe to the tail, thus assimilating the appearance of the animal to the long lichens hanging from the boughs of the trees in which it dwells. Most or all of the Semnopithecinae feed on leaves; a circumstance doubtless correlated with the complex structure of their stomach. Cercopitheques, Mangabeys, Macaques and Baboons.—The whole of the remaining members of the family Cercopithecidae are included in the sub-family Cercopithecinae, which presents the following characteristics: The hind limbs are not longer than the front pair; the tail may be either long, short or practically absent; cheek-pouches are present; the stomach is simple; the callosities on the buttocks are often very large; the last lower molar may or may not have a posterior heel; and the thumb is well developed. Whereas all the Semnopithecinae are completely arboreal, many of the Cercopitherinae, and more especially the baboons, are to a great extent or entirely terrestrial. The typical representatives of the group are the African monkeys, forming the genus Cercopithecus, which includes- a very large number of species with the following characters in common: the tail, although shorter than in the Semnopithecinae, is long, as are the hind limbs, while the general form is slender. The jaw and muzzle are short and the cheek-pouches large; while the nose is not prominent, with the nostrils approximated; whiskers and a beard of variable length are usually developed. The fingers of the long hands are united by webs at the base; the thumb is small in comparison with the great toe. The callosities are of moderate size; and the hairs of the thick and soft fur are in most cases marked by differently-coloured rings. For convenience of description the numerous species of this genus may be arranged in a number of groups or sub-genera. The first of these groups includes the spot-nosed forms (Rhinostictus), characterized by the presence of a spot of white, red or blue on the nose ; well-known species,being the lesser white-nosed guenon (C. petaurista) of West Africa and the hocheur, C. nictitans, which is also West African. In the typical group, as represented by the malbrouck monkey (C. cyno, surus) of the West Coast, and the Abyssinian grivet (C. sabaeus), the fur of the back is of a more or less olive-green hue, while the under surface and whiskers are white and the limbs grey. The large patas monkey (C. patas) of West Africa and the red-backed monkey (C. pyrrhonotus) of Kordofan typify a third section (Erythrocebus), characterized by the red upper and white lower surface of the body. A fourth section (Mona) includes the mona (C. mona) of Western, and Sykes's monkey (C. albigularis) of Eastern Africa, with a number of allied species, characterized by the presence of a black band running from the outer angle of the eye to the ear, and the black or dark-grey limbs. The bearded monkey (C. pogonias) of Fernando Po and Guinea, with two sub-species, typifies a small section (Otopithecus), characterized by large rufous or yellowish ear-tufts and the presence of three black stripes on the forehead, Pogonocebus is another small section, including the well-known Diana monkey (C. diana) of Western, and De Brazza's monkey (C. neglectus) of Eastern Africa, easily recognized by the long (generally white) beard and frontal crest. Finally, the little talapoin (C. talapoin) of the Gaboon alone represents a group (Miopithecus) broadly distinguished by having three, in place of four, cusps on the crowns of the lower molars. The next group is that of the African mangabeys (Cercocebus), the more typical species of which are easily recognized by their bare flesh-coloured eyelids, and the absence of rings of different colours on the hair, or at least on that of the back. In these monkeys the general form is intermediate between that of the cercopitheques and the macaques, to be -text mentioned, the head being more oval and the muzzle more produced than in the former, but less so than in the latter. The limbs are longer and the body is more slender than in the macaques, and the callosities are also smaller. On the other hand, the thumb is smaller than in the guenons, and the tail is carried curled over the back instead of straight; while these monkeys differ from the former in having a posterior heel to the last lower molar, which is thus five-cusped, as in the macaques. The laryngeal air sacs of the latter are, however, wanting. Well-known representatives of the typical section of the group are the sooty mangabey (C. fuliginosus) and the white-collared mangabey (C. collaris) of West Africa, the latter easily recognized by the bright red crown of the head. A second group of the genus, Lophocebus (or Semnocebus) is typified by the white-cheeked mangabey (C. albigena) of the equatorial forest-region, in which the head is crested and the eyelids lack bare flesh-coloured rims. The rhesus monkey (Macacus rhesus) of India is the typical representative of the macaques, which may be regarded as the Asiatic representatives of the mangabeys. From that group the macaques differ by their heavier and stouter build (fig. io), thicker limbs, the presence of large laryngeal sacs, the larger size of the callosities, and the more produced muzzle, while many of them have the tail (which may be absent) much shorter. The nostrils are not terminal, and the hairs are generally ringed. In habits the macaques are much more terrestrial than the mangabeys, some of them being completely so. In the typical group, which, in addition to the rhesus, includes the Himalayan macaque (M. assamensis), the brown macaque (M. arctoides) of Burma and Tibet (fig. so), the tail may be about (From Milne-Edwards.) equal to half the length of the body or less; but in the Barbary ape, M. (Inuus) Inuus, of North Africa and Gibraltar, this appendage is wanting. In a third group (Nemestrinus), represented by the pig-tailed macaque (M. nemestrinus), ranging from Burma to Borneo, and the lion-macaque (M. leoninus) of Siam, the tail, which is carried erect, is about one-third the length of the body. The lion-tailed macaque (M. silenus) of southern India, often miscalled the wanderoo, represents a group by itself (Vetulus) characterized by the long hair fringing the face and meeting under the chin, and the tufted lion-like tail, which is from one-half to three-quarters the length of the body. The last group (Cynomolgus), now often regarded as a distinct genus, is typified by the widely-spread crab-eating macaque (M. cynomolgus), characterized by its produced muzzle, short and stout limbs, and basally-swollen tail, which is nearly as long as the body. It also includes the South Indian bonnet-macaque (M. sinicus) and the Ceylon toque-macaque (M. pileatus), taking their names from the elongated hair on the crown, which are nearly allied, and with the first-named species approach the baboons in their elongated muzzles (see MACAQUE). A still nearer approach to the baboons is made by the black ape (Cynopithecus niger) of Celebes and the neighbouring islands, which is represented by several sub-species, among them the so-called it Moor-macaque (Macacus maurus). Some difference of opinion exists as to the proper serial position of this species, which is included in Macacus by several zoologists who separate Cynomolgus as a genus. It is characterized by the marked elongation of the muzzle, which, like the neck, hands and feet, is naked. The nostrils are, however, directed outwards and downwards, as in the macaques; but, on the other hand, there are baboon-like ridges on the sides of the muzzle and heavy supra-orbital ridges. There are large cheek-pouches; and the tail is a mere stump. The colour is sooty-black. The weird-looking gelada baboon (Theropithecus gelada) of southern, and the allied T. obscurus of eastern Abyssinia represent a genus which is essentially baboon-like in general characteristics, but has the nostrils of the macaque-type, while the facial portion of the skull is shorter than the cranial. The preorbital portion of the face is concave with the ridges rounded, and the tusks are very long. The long tail is tufted at the tip, and the hair is long and bushy, developing into a mantle-like mane on the fore-quarters of old males, leaving the chest bare. The general colour is dark-brown. The last representatives of the Cercopithecidae are the baboons, or dog-faced baboons, of Africa and Arabia, forming the genus Papio. These are for the most part large monkeys, associating in herds under the leadership of an old male, and dwelling chiefly among rocks, although they ascend trees in search of gum. They are easily recognized by their long dog-like faces (fig. II), in which the nostrils open at the extremity of the greatly elongated muzzle. On the sides of the muzzle are prominent longitudinal ridges covered with bare skin which may be brilliantly coloured. The callosities, which are also generally bright-coloured, are large; and the tail is of moderate length or short. The hairs are ringed with different colours, and the general colour is olive-yellow, grey or brownish. The typical, and at the same time the smallest representative. of the group Lis the yellow baboon (P. cynocephalus or P. babuin) (fig. II), ranging from Abyssinia to Angola and Mozambique, and distinguished by its rather short and grooved muzzle and longish tail, which is nearly as long as the body. The majority of the species, such as the widely spread P. anubis (with several local races), P. sphinx of West Africa, and the chacma (P. porcarius) of South Africa, are included in the sub-genus Chaeropithecus, and have the muzzle longer and undivided and the tail shorter, in most the colour is golden-olive with very distinct rings, but in the chacma it is darker. The hamadryad baboon, P. hamadryas, of north-east Africa and Arabia, and the closely allied P. arabicus of southern Arabia, represent a sub-genus (Hamadryas) characterized by the ashy-grey colour and the profuse mantle-like mane of the adult males; the tail being slightly shorter than the body. Lastly, the West African mandrill (P. maimon) and drill (P. leucophaeus) form the sub-genus Maimon, distinguished by the extremely short tail, and the great development of the facial ridges, which are strongly fluted. In the mandrill, which is the most brilliantly coloured of all mammals, the ridges are vermilion and cobalt, while the callosities on the buttocks are of equal brilliance; but in the drill, which has white ear-tufts, the colouring is more sombre (see BABOON and MANDRILL). American Monkeys and Marmosets.—The monkeys and marmosets of tropical America constitute the Platyrrhina, or second section of the Anthropoidea, and are characterized as follows: An additional premolar is present in both jaws, bringing up the number of these teeth to three pairs. The tympanum is ring-like, with no external bony-tube, or meatus; and a tympanic bulla exists. A parieto-zygomatic suture causes the jugal bone to be included in the orbital plate; and the orbito-temporal foramen is large. Cheek-pouches and callosities on the buttocks are wanting. The descending colon does not form a sigmoid flexure; and the caecum is generally bent in a hook-like form, with, at most, very slight narrowing of its terminal extremity. The cartilage forming the inter-nasal septum is broad, and the nostrils are directed obliquely out-wards. The tail, which never has fewer than fourteen vertebrae, is generally as long as the body, and frequently prehensile. The ethmoturbinals are originally separate; and the laryngeal sac, when present, is of peculiar type. Usually there is only a simple primary discoid placenta, but rudiments of a secondary one have been recently described. The first family, or Cebidae, includes the American monkeys, as distinct from marmosets, which present the following characteristics: The ears are more or less naked externally. The terminal joints of the fingers and toes carry flat or curved nails; and the thumb, when present, is opposable to the other fingers. Except in the uakaris, the tail is long, generally short-haired, and frequently with a terminal bare surface for prehension. Dentition i. c. I, p. , m, R. Generally a foramen (entepicondylar) in the inner side of the lower end of. the humerus. As a rule, only a single offspring is produced at a birth. Ranging over tropical America, the Cebidae have their headquarters in the vast Brazilian forests, where so many of the animals are more or less arboreal in their habits. These monkeys are completely arboreal, more so, indeed, than the gibbons among the Catarrhina. The first sub-family, Alouatinae, is represented only by the howlers, Alouata (or Mycetes), characterized by the long prehensile tail with the extremity naked below, the well-developed thumb, and the extension of the hyoid-bone into an enormous bladder-like chamber contained between the two branches of the lower jaw (fig. 3). In this bony cup is received one of the three or five laryngeal sacs. There are about half a dozen species, with several sub-species; three of the best known being A. seniculus, A. belzebul and A. ursina. Several are brilliantly coloured, with bright or golden hair on the flanks; but in the Amazonian A. nigra the male is black and the female straw-coloured. The muzzle is longer than in other Cebidae (see HOWLER). The Cebinae include the typical members of the family, characterized by the large brain, of which the elongated hemispheres cover the cerebellum; the brain-case of the skull being, of course, elongated in proportion. The lumbar vertebrae are short, with upright comb-like processes, instead of the rhomboidal ones of the howlers. The lower jaw and hyoid are of normal form. In the first section of the sub-family the tail is evenly haired throughout, the thumb well developed, the limbs of medium length, with the front not longer than the hind pair, the nails curved, and the humerus with an entepicondylar foramen. The typical genus Cebus includes the numerous species of capuchins, many of which are so commonly seen in captivity. They are stouter in build and smaller in size than the spider-monkeys, and their tails are only prehensile to a small extent, but are commonly carried spirally rolled. The conical upper canines project below the upper lip, and the molars have blunt low cusps. Well-known species are the white-cheeked capuchin, C. lunatus (fig. 12), of south Brazil; the true capuchin, C. capucinus, ranging from Guiana to Brazil; and the brown capuchin, C. fatuellus, of Guiana; all of these showing the black crown from which these monkeys take their popular name. The most northern representative of the group is the white-throated C. hypoleucus, which ranges to Costa Rica. The squirrel-monkeys, Chrysothrix (or Saimiris), of which C. sciureus is the most familiar representative, are not unfrequently placed in the Nyctipithecinae, although their true position seems to be here. They differ from Cebus by their smaller size and more delicate build, by the tail being scarcely at all prehensile, by the smaller canines, smaller and more sharply cusped molars, and the large and closely-approximated orbits, whose inner walls are partly membranous (see CAPU-
End of Article: PRIMATES (Lat. primas, first)

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