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PRINCIPE ISLAND

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Originally appearing in Volume V24, Page 52 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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PRINCIPE ISLAND lies 90 M. N.E. of St Thomas, has an area of 42 sq. m. and is also of volcanic origin. Pop. (19o0) 4327. The tsetse fly (which is not found in St Thomas) infests the wooded part of the island, and through it sleeping sickness has been spread among the inhabitants. The principal industry is the cultivation of cocoa. The chief settlement is St Antonio. See A. Negreiros, Historia ethnographica da Ilha de S Thorne (Lisbon, 1895) and Pie de San Thorne (Paris, 1901) ; C. Gravier Mission scientifique a file de San Thome " Nouv. Arch. Miss. Scient. t. xv. (Paris, 1907) ; A. Pinto de Miranda Guedes, " Viacao em S Thome " in B.S.G. Lisboa (1902) pp. 299-357; E. de Campos 1 According to Aug. Chevalier (in O. Occidenle, May loth, 1910) the population of St Thomas and Principe combined in Dec. 1909 was 68,221, the " natives " being given at over 23,000. " S. Thome " B.S.G. Lisboa (1908), pp. 113-134; W. A. Cadbury, Labour in Portuguese West Africa (2nd ed., London, 191o); A ilha de S Thome (Lisbon, 19o7); The Boa Entrada Plantations (Edinburgh, 19o7); and British Consular reports. ST THOMAS, an island in the Danish West Indies. It belongs to the Virgin Island group, and lies 40 M. E. of Porto Rico, in 18° 20' N. and 64° 55' W. Pop. (1901) 11,012, mostly negroes. It is 13 m long, varies in width from I m. to 4 M. and has an area of 33 M. It consists of a single mountain ridge, the peaks of a submerged range, culminating in West Mountain (1555 ft.). St Thomas stands on a prolongation of the range which supports the Greater Antilles, and is built up of much disintegrated eruptive rock (porphyry and granite). The climate is tropical, varying in temperature between 70° F. and 8o° F., modified, however, by the sea breezes. The average yearly rainfall is about 45 in., earthquakes are not unknown, and hurricanes at times sweep over the island. The only town, Charlotte Amalie (pop. 8540), lies in the centre of the S coast, at the head of one of the finest harbours in the West Indies. This consists of an almost land-locked basin, about a m. across, varying in depth from 27 to 36 It., and entered by a narrow channel only 300 yds. wide. It is equipped with a floating dock, which can accommodate ships up to 3000 tons, a patent slip for smaller vessels and a repairing yard. Danish is the official language, but English predominates, while French, Spanish and Dutch are also spoken. St Thomas was once the greatest distributing centre in the West Indies, but the introduction of steamships and cables led to its decline, and the removal of the Royal Mail Steamship Company's headquarters to Barbados in 1885 was the final blow. The production of sugar, which decayed gradually after the abolition of slavery, is practically extinct. Aloes, fibrous plants and fruit are grown. St Thomas is the seat of government for the Danish West Indies (St Thomas, St John and St Croix), a crown colony administered by a governor, who is assisted by a colonial council. The governor resides for half the year in St Thomas, and in St Croix for the rest. The chief importance of St Thomas lies in the fact that it is a coaling station for ships plying to and from the West Indies. The island was discovered by Columbus in 1493, and first colonized by the Dutch in 1657. After their departure in 1667 the island came into the hands of the British, and it was held by them till 1671, when it passed into the hands of the Danish West India Company, which was succeeded in 1685 by the so-called Brandenburg Company, the shareholders of which were mainly Dutch. The king of Denmark having taken over the island in 1754, declared it a free port, and during the European wars of the 18th century the neutrality of Denmark gave a great impetus to the trade of St Thomas. It was during this period that the distributing trade of the island grew up. It was held by the British in 18o, and again from 1807 to 1815, during which it was the great rendezvous of British merchant vessels waiting for convoy. In 1867, when the islands were governed at a loss to the mother country, a treaty was concluded under which the United States agreed to buy them for 72 million dollars, but, although the suggestion first emanated from the United States, its Senate refused to ratify the treaty. In 1902 another treaty of cession was signed by which the United States was to buy the islands for 5 million dollars, but the Danish parliament rejected it. The importance of the islands to the United States consists in their suitability as a West Indian naval base. ST TROND, a town of Belgium in the province of Limburg about 18 m. N.W. of Liege. Pop. (1904) 15,116. It occupies an important strategical position with regard to the N.E. frontier of Belgium, and General Brialmont recommended its fortification. In the middle ages it was a fortified town belonging to the bishops of Liege, and Charles the Bold captured it in 1467. In 1566 the Assembly of Compromise met at St Trond. SAINT-VICTOR, PAUL BINS, COMTE DE (1827-1881), known as Paul de Saint-Victor, French author, was born in Paris on the 11th of July 1827. His father Jacques B. M. Bins, comte de Saint-Victor (1772-1858), is remembered by his poem L'Esprrance, and by an excellent verse translation of Anacreon. Saint-Victor, who ceased to use the title of count as being out of keeping with his democratic principles, began as a dramatic critic on the Pays in 1851, and in 1885 he succeeded Theophile Gautier on the Presse. In 1866 he migrated to the Liberte, and in 1869 joined the staff of the Moniteur universel. In 1870, during the last days of the second empire, he was made inspector-general of fine arts. Almost all Saint-Victor's work consists of articles, the best known being the collection entitled Hommes et dieux (1867). His death interrupted the publication of Les Deux Masques, in which the author intended to survey the whole dramatic literature of ancient and modern times. Saint-Victor's critical faculty was considerable, though rather one-sided. He owed a good deal to Theophile Gautier, but he carried ornateness to a pitch far beyond Gautier's. Saint-Victor died in Paris on the 9th of July 1881. See also Deljant, Paul de Saint-Victor (1887). ST VINCENT, JOHN JERVIS, EARL OF (1735-1823), British admiral, was the second son of Swynfen Jervis, solicitor to the admiralty, and treasurer of Greenwich hospital. He was born at Meaford in Staffordshire on the 9th of January 1735, and entered the navy on the 4th of January 1749. He became lieutenant on the 19th of February 1755, and served in that rank till 1759, taking part in the conquest of Quebec. He was made commander of the " Scorpion " sloop in 1759, and post-captain in 176o. During the peace he commanded the " Alarm " 32 in the Mediterranean, and when he was put on half pay he travelled widely in Europe, taking professional notes everywhere. While the War of American Independence lasted, he commanded the " Fourroyant " (8o) in the Channel, taking part in the battle of Ushant on the 27th of July 1778 (see KEPPEL, VISCOUNT) and in the various reliefs of Gibraltar. His most signal service was the capture of the French " Pegase " (74) after a long chase on the 19th of April 1782, for which he was made K.B. In 1783 he entered parliament as member for Launceston, and in the general election of 1784 as member for Yarmouth. In politics he was a strong Whig. On the 24th of September 1787 he attained flag rank, and was promoted vice-admiral in 1793. From 1793 till 1795 he was in the West Indies co-operating with the army in the conquest' of the French islands. On his return he was promoted admiral. In November 1.795 he took command in the Mediterranean, where he maintained the blockade of Toulon, and aided the allies of Great Britain in Italy. But in 1796 a great change was produced by the progress of the French armies on shore and the alliance of Spain with France. The occupation of Italy by the French armies closed all the ports to his ships, and Malta was not yet in the possession of Great Britain. Then the addition of the Spanish fleet to the French altered the balance of strength in the Mediterranean. The Spaniards were very inefficient, and Jervis would have held his ground, if one of his subordinates had not taken the extraordinary course of returning to England, because he thought that the dangerous state of the country required that all its forces should be concentrated at home. He was therefore obliged to act on the instructions sent to him and to retire to the Atlantic, with-drawing the garrisons from Corsica and other places. His headquarters were now on the coast of Portugal, and his chief duty was to watch the Spanish fleet at Cadiz. On the 14th of February 1797 he gained a most complete victory against heavy odds (see ST VINCENT, BATTLE OF). The determination to fight, and the admirable discipline of his squadron, which was very largely the fruit of his own care in preparation, supply the best proof that he was a commander of a high order. For this victory, which came at a very critical time, he was made an earl and was granted a pension of 3000. His qualities as a disciplinarian were soon to be put to a severe test. In 1797 the grievances of the sailors, which were of old standing, and had led to many mutinies of single ships, came to a head in the great general mutinies at Spithead and the Nore. Similar movements took place on the coast of Ireland and at the Cape of Good Hope (see the article NAVY: History). The spirit spread to the fleet under St Vincent, and there was an undoubted danger that some outbreak would take place in his command. The peril was averted by his foresight and severity. He had always taken great care of the health of his men, and was as strict with the officers as with sailors. It must in justice be added that he was peculiarly fitted for the work. We have ample evidence from his contemporaries that he found a pleasure in insulting officers whom he disliked, as well as in hanging and flogging those of his men who offended him. He carried his strictness with his officers to an extent which aroused the actual hatred of many among them, and exasperated Sir John Orde (1751-1824) into challenging him to fight a duel. Yet he cannot be denied the honour of having raised the discipline of the navy to a higher level than it had reached before; he was always ready to promote good officers, and the efficiency of the squadron with which Nelson won the battle of the Nile was largely due to him. His health broke down under the strain of long cruising, and in June 1799 he resigned his command. When the earl's health was restored in the following year he took the command of the Channel fleet, into which he introduced his own rigid system of discipline to the bitter anger of the captains. But his method was fully justified by the fact that he was able to maintain the blockade of Brest for 121 days with his fleet. In 180, he became first lord and held the office till Pitt returned to power in 1803. His administration is famous in the history of the navy, for he now applied himself to the very necessary task of reforming the corruptions of the dockyards. Naturally he was fiercely attacked in and out of parliament. His peremptory character led him to do the right thing with the maximum of dictation at Whitehall as on the quarter-deck of his flagship. He also gave an opening to his critics by devoting himself so wholly to the reform of the dockyards that he neglected the preparation of the fleet for war. He would not recognize the possibility that the peace of Amiens would not last. Pitt made himself the mouthpiece of St Vincent's enemies, mainly because he considered him as a dangerous member of the party which was weakening the position of England in the face of Napoleon. When Pitt's second ministry was formed in 1803, St Vincent refused to take the command of the Channel fleet at his request. After Pitt's death he resumed the duty with the temporary rank of admiral of the fleet in 18o6, but held it only till the following year. After 18,o he retired to his house at Rochetts in Essex. The rank of admiral of the fleet was conferred on him in 1821 on the coronation of George IV., and he died on the 14th of March 1823. Lord St Vincent married his cousin Martha Parker, who died childless in 1816. There is a monument to the earl in St Paul's Cathedral, and portraits of him at different periods of his life are numerous. The earldom granted to Jervis became extinct on his death, but a viscounty, created for him in 18o1, passed by special remainder to Edward Jervis Ricketts (1767-1857), the second son of his sister Mary who had married William Henry Ricketts, of Longwood, Hampshire. The 2nd viscount took the _name of Jervis, and the title is still held by his descendants. See Life by J. S. Tucker (2 vols.), whose father had been the admiral's secretary (marred by excessive eulogy). The life by Captain Brenton is rather inaccurate. The Naval Career of Admiral John Markham contains an account of the reforms in the navy. His administrations produced a swarm of pamphlets. Many mentions of him will be found in the correspondence of Nelson. (D. H.) ST VINCENT, one of the British Windward Islands in the West Indies, lying about 13° 15' N., 61° Io' W., west of Barbados and south of St Lucia. It is about 18 m. long by 11 in extreme width, and has an area of 140 sq. m. A range of volcanic hills forms the backbone of the island; their slopes and spurs are beautifully wooded, and the valleys between the spurs are fertile and picturesque. The culminating point is the volcano called the Soufriere (3500 ft.) in the north, the disastrous eruption of which in May 1902 devastated the most fertile portion of the island, a comparatively level tract lying to the north, called the Carib Country (see below). The climate of St Vincent is fairly healthy and in winter very pleasant; the average annual rainfall exceeds too in., and the temperature ranges from 88° F. in August to 66° in December and January. Hurricanes are not uncommon. The capital of the island is Kingstown, beautifully situated on the south-west coast near the foot of Mount St Andrew (2600 ft.). The population of the island in 1891 was 41,054 (2445 white, 7554 coloured, 31,055 black); in 1906 it was estimated at 44,000. There were about 3300 East Indian coolies, a large number of whom were introduced in 1861 and following years, but on the expiry of their indentures mostly returned home; there were also a few Caribs of mixed blood, the majority of the aboriginal Caribs having been deported to British Honduras in 1797. Kingstown has a population of about 4000. The principal products of the island are sugar (but the sugar-industry has here, as elsewhere, undergone various vicissitudes), arrowroot and rum; and the cultivation of Sea Island cotton, introduced about 1903, has.been successfully developed by the government, which established a ginnery at Kings-town. Other articles of export are cacao, cotton, spices, fruit, vegetables, live stock and poultry. The average annual value of exports in 1896–1906 was £63,157 (in 1903–1904, the year following that of the great eruption, it was £38,174, and in 1905–1906 it was £53,078) and of imports, £80,467. In 1905–1906 the value of imports from the United Kingdom was £25,471, and that of exports to the United Kingdom £24,405. The present constitution dates from 1877, when the legislative council, consisting of four official and four nominated unofficial members, was formed. In 1899 an important scheme was entered upon, by means of a grant of £15,000 from the Imperial treasury, for settling the labouring population, distressed by the failures of the sugar industry, in the position of peasant proprietors. Estates were acquired from private owners for this purpose, and besides this a number of small holdings on crown lands (which are situated mainly in the high-lying central parts of the island) have been sold. Education is carried on in 27 state-aided schools, and there are at Kings-town a grammar school and an agricultural school. The Anglican, Wesleyan and Roman Catholic churches are well represented, and there are some Presbyterians. St Vincent is generally stated to have been discovered on St Vincent's day, the 22nd of January 1498 by Columbus. Its Carib inhabitants, however, remained undisturbed for many years. In 1627 Charles I. granted the island to the earl of Carlisle; in 1672 it was re-granted to Lord Willoughby, having been previously (166o) declared neutral. In 1722 a further grant of the island was made, to the duke of Montague, and now for the first time a serious effort at colonization was made, but the French insisted on the maintenance of neutrality, and this was confirmed by the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748). In 1762, however, General Monckton captured the island; the treaty of Paris in 1763 confirmed the British possession, and settlement proceeded in spite of the refusal of the Caribs to admit British sovereignty. Recourse was had to arms, and in 1773 a treaty was concluded with them, when they were granted lands in the north of the island as a reserve. In 1779 the island was surrendered to the French, but it was restored to Britain by the treaty of Versailles (1783). In 1795 the Caribs rose, assisted by the French, and were only put down after considerable fighting by Sir Ralph Abercromby in 1796, after which the majority of them were deported. The emancipation of negro slaves in the island took place in 1838; in 1846 the first Portuguese labourers were introduced, and in 1861 the first East Indian coolies. St Vincent suffered from a terrific hurricane in 178c, and the Soufriere was in eruption in 1821. Severe distress was occasioned by the hurricane of the 11th of September 1898, from which the island had not recovered when it was visited by the eruption of the Soufriere in 1902. This eruption was synchronous with that of Mont Pele in Martinique (q.v.). There had been signs of activity, since February 1901, but the most serious eruption took place on the 6th/7th of May 1902. There were earthquakes in the following July, and further eruptions on the 3rd of September and the 15th of October, and on the 22nd of March 1903. Many sugar and arrowroot plantations were totally destroyed, and the loss of life was estimated at 2000. A Mansion House Fund was at once started in London for the relief of the sufferers, and subscriptions were sent from all parts of the civilized world, and notably from the United States. ST VINCENT, BATTLE OF, fought on the 14th of February 1797, between the British and Spanish fleets, the most famous and important of many encounters which have taken place at the same spot. The battle of 1797 is of peculiar significance in British naval history, not only because it came at a vital moment, but because it first revealed the full capacity of Nelson, which was well known m the navy, to all his countrymen. In the course of 1796 the Spanish government had made the disastrous alliance with the French republic, which reduced its country to the level of a pawn in the game against England. The Spanish fleet, which was in a complete state of neglect, was forced to sea. It consisted of 27 sail of the line under the command of Don Jose de Cordoba—fine ships, but manned in haste by drafts of soldiers, and of landsmen forced on board by the press. Even the flagships had only about eighty sailors each in their crews. Don Jose de Cordoba, who had gone out with no definite aim, was in reality drifting about with his unmanageable ships in two confused divisions separated from one another, in light winds from the W. and W.S.W., at a distance of from 25 to 30 M. S.W. of the Cape. While in this position he was sighted by Sir John Jervis, of whose nearness to himself he was ignorant, and who had sailed from Lisbon to attack him with only 15 sail of the line. Jervis knew the inefficient condition of the Spaniards, and was aware that the general condition of the war called for vigorous exertions. He did not hesitate to give battle in spite of the numerical superiority of his opponent. Six of the Spanish ships were to the south of him, separated by a long interval from the others which were to the south west. The British squadron was formed into a single line ahead, and was steered to pass between the two divisions of the Spaniards. The six vessels were thus cut off. A feeble attempt was made by them to molest the British, but being now to leeward as Jervis passed to the west of them, and being unable to face the rapid and well directed fire to which they were exposed, they sheered off. One only ran down the British line, and passing to the stern of the last ship succeeded in joining the bulk of her fleet to windward. As the British line passed through the gap between the Spanish divisions the ships were tacked in succession to meet the wind-ward portion of the enemy. If this movement had been carried out fully, all the British ships would have gone through the gap and the Spaniards to windward would have been able to steer unimpeded to the north, and perhaps to avoid being brought to a close general action. Their chance of escape was baffled by the independence and promptitude of Nelson. His ship, the " Captain " (74), was the third from the end of the British line. Without waiting for orders he-made a sweep to the west, threw himself across the bows of the Spaniards. His movement was seen and approved by Jervis, who then ordered the other ships in his rear to follow Nelson's example. The British force was thrown bodily on the enemy. As the Spanish crews were too utterly unpractised to handle their ships, and could not carry out the orders of their officers which they did not understand, their ships were soon driven into a herd, and fell on board of one another. Their incompetence as gunners enabled the " Captain " to assail their flagship, the huge " Santisima Trinidad " (130), with comparative impunity. The " San Josef " (112), and the " San Nicolas " (8o), which fell aboard of one another, were both carried by boarding by the " Captain." Four Spanish ships, the " Salvador del Mundo " and " San Josef " (112), the " San Nicolas " (8o), and the " San Isidro " (74), were taken. The " Santisima Trinidad " is said to have struck, but she was not taken possession of. By about half-past three the Spaniards were fairly beaten. More prizes might have been taken, but Sir John Jervis put a stop to the action to secure the four which had surrendered. The Spaniards were allowed to retreat to Cadiz. Sir John Jervis was made Earl St Vincent (q.v.) for his victory. The battle, which revealed the worthlessness of the Spanish navy, relieved the British government from a load of anxiety, and may be said to have marked the complete predominance of its fleet on the sea. ST VITUS'S DANCE,' or CHOREA, a disorder of the nervous system occurring for the most part in children, and characterized mainly by involuntary jerking movements of the muscles throughout almost the entire body (see NEUROPATHOLOGY). Among the predisposing causes age is important, chorea being essentially an ailment of childhood and particularly during the period of the second dentition between the ages of nine and twelve. It is not often seen in very young children nor after puberty; but there are many exceptions. It is twice as frequent with girls as with boys. Hereditary predisposition to nervous troubles is apt to find expression in this malady, especially if the general health becomes lowered. Of exciting causes strong emotions, such as fright, ill-usage or hardship of any kind, insufficient feeding, overwork or anxiety, are among the most common; while, again, some distant source of irritation, such as teething or intestinal worms, appears capable of giving rise to an attack. It is an occasional but rare complication of pregnancy. The connexion of chorea with rheumatism is now universally recognized, and is shown not merely by its frequent occurrence before, after or during the course of attacks of rheumatic fever in young persons, but even independently of this by the liability of the heart to suffer in a similar way in the two diseases. Poynton and Paine have demonstrated a diplococcus, which they regard as the specific micro-organism of rheumatism, and which has been found in the lymph spaces in the cortex in chorea. An attempt has recently been made to demonstrate the infectious nature of the chorea. The symptoms of St Vitus's dance sometimes develop suddenly as the result of fright, but much more frequently they come on insidiously. They are usually preceded by changes in disposition, the child becoming sad, irritable and emotional, while at the same time the general health is somewhat impaired. The first thing indicative of the disease is a certain awkwardness or fidgetiness of manner together with restlessness. In walking, too, slight dragging of one limb may be noticed. The convulsive muscular movements usually first show themselves in one part, such as an .arm or a leg, and in some instances they may remain localized to that limited extent, while in all cases there is a tendency for the disorderly symptoms to be more marked on one side than on the other. When fully developed the phenomena of the disease are very characteristic. The child when standing or sitting is never still, but is constantly changing the position of the body or limbs or the facial expression in consequence of the sudden and incoordinate action of muscles or groups of them. These symptoms are aggravated when purposive movements are attempted or when the child is watched. Speech is affected both from the incoordinate movements of the tongue and from phonation sometimes taking place during an act of inspiration. The taking of food becomes a matter of difficulty, since much of it is lost in the attempts to convey it to the mouth, while swallowing is also interfered with owing to the, irregular action of the pharyngeal muscles. When the tongue is protruded it comes out in a jerky manner and is immediately withdrawn, the jaws at the same time closing suddenly and sometimes with considerable force. In locomotion the muscles of the limbs act incoordinately and there is a marked alteration of the gait, which is now halting and now leaping, and the child may be tripped by one limb being suddenly jerked in front of the other. In short, the whole muscular system is deranged in its operations, and the term " insanity of the muscles " not inaptly expresses the condition, for they no longer act in harmony or with purpose, but seem, as Trousseau expresses it, each to have a will of its own. The muscles of organic life (involuntary muscles) appear scarcely, 1 This name was originally employed in connexion with those remarkable epidemic outbursts of combined mental and. physical excitement which for a time prevailed among the inhabitants of some parts of Germany in the middle ages. It is stated that sufferers from this dancing mania were wont to resort to the chapels of St Vitus (more than one in Swabia), the saint being believed to possess the power of curing them. The transference of the name to the disease now under consideration was a manifest error, but so closely has the association now become that the original application of the term has been comparatively obscured. if at all, affected in this disease, as, for example, the heart, the rhythmic movements of which are not as a rule impaired. But the heart may suffer in other ways, especially from inflammatory conditions similar to those which attend upon rheumatism and which frequently lay the foundation of permanent heart-disease. In severe cases of St Vitus's dance the child comes to present a distressing appearance, and the physical health declines. Usually, however, there is a remission of the symptoms during sleep. The mental condition of the patient is more or less affected, as shown in emotional tendencies, irritability and a somewhat fatuous expression and bearing, but this change is in general of transient character and ceases with convalescence. This disease occasionally assumes a very acute and aggravated form, in which the disorderly movements are so violent as to render the patient liable to be injured, and to necessitate forcible control of the limbs, or the employment of anaesthetics to produce unconsciousness. Such cases are of very grave character, if, as is common, they are accompanied with sleeplessness, and they may prove rapidly fatal by exhaustion. In the great majority of cases, however, complete recovery is to be anticipated sooner or later, the symptoms usually continuing for from one to two months, or even sometimes much longer. The remedies proposed have been innumerable, but it is doubtful whether any of them has much control over the disease, which under suitable hygienic conditions tends to recover of itself. These conditions, however, are all-important, and embrace the proper feeding of the child with nutritious light diet, the absence of all sources of excitement and annoyance, and the rectification of any causes of irritation and of irregularities in the general health. For a time, and especially if the symptoms are severe, confinement to the house or even to bed may be necessary, but as soon as possible the child should be taken out into the open air and gently exercised by walking. Ruhrah, recognizing the importance of rest, recommends a modified Weir-Mitchell treatment. Of medicinal remedies the resist serviceable appear to be zinc, arsenic and iron, especially the last two, which act as tonics to the system and improve the condition of the blood. In view of the connexion of chorea with rheumatism, Koplik and Dr D. B. Lees recommend salicylate of soda in large doses. Recently ergot, hot packs and mcnobromate of camphor have found advocates, while cessation of the movements has followed. the application of an ether spray to the spine twice daily. As sedatives in cases of sleeplessness, bromide of potassium and chloral are of use. In long-continued cases of the disease much benefit will be obtained by a change of air as well as by the employment of moderate gymnastic exercises. The employment of massage and of electricity is also likely to be beneficial. After recovery the general health of the child should for a long time receive attention, and care should be taken to guard against excitement, excessive study or any exhausting condition, physical or mental, from the fact that the disease is apt to recur, and that other nervous disorders still more serious may be developed from it. In the rare instances of the acute form of this malady, where the convulsive movements are unceasing and violent, the only measures available are the use of chloral or chloroform inhalation to produce insensibility and muscular relaxation, but the effect is only palliative. SAINT-WANDRILLE, a village of north-western France, in the department of Seine-Inferieure, 28 m. W.N.W. of Rouen by rail. It is celebrated for the ruins of its Benedictine abbey. The abbey church belongs to the 13th and '14th centuries; portions of the nave walls supported by flying buttresses are standing, and the windows and vaulting of the side aisles are in fair preservation. The church communicates with a cloister, from which an interesting door of the Renaissance period opens into the refectory. Beside this entrance is a richly ornamented lavabo of the Renaissance period. The refectory is a room over loo ft. long, lighted by graceful windows of the same period. The abbey was founded in the 7th century by St Wandrille, aided by the donations of Clovis II. It soon became renowned for learning and piety. In the 13th century it was burnt down, and the rebuilding was not completed till the beginning of the 16th century. Later in the same century it was practically destroyed by the Huguenots, and again the restoration was not finished for more than a hundred years. The demolition of the church was begun at the time of the Revolution, but proceeded slowly and in 1832 was entirely stopped.
End of Article: PRINCIPE ISLAND
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